The Light of the Prophet (asws) and His Special Distinction
There has arisen today a group of Muslims who are “angry” that the Sufis praise the Prophet Muhammad (asws) “too much”, and claim that he is no more than an ordinary man like us. They have no reservations against praising or elevating themselves and their own people, with praises which they would be reluctant to apply to the Blessed Prophet (asws). Rather, they seek to denigrate his status to their own, and cast aspersions of misguidance and heretical innovation on anyone who declares that he (asws) has unique qualities separating him from the rest of creation, or that he is a light from Allah (Most High). This is due only to their arrogance, which has blinded them, for they see no one higher than them but Allah Himself, and so if someone (like the Prophet (asws) or his righteous inheritors) is praised above them, they imagine that he is being given the same status as Allah Himself! It would do them well to become humble and learn what their religion says about this unique blessed being, and not fall under the warning and curse of Allah which He saves for those who belittle His most Beloved (asws). So in this chapter, we mention some of what has come concerning his special distinctions, especially his being the first (created) light from Allah.
From the Qur’an
1) Allah (Most High) Himself has called the Prophet Muhammad (asws) a “light from Allah” and “a light-giving lamp”. He said: “There has come to you from Allah a Light and a Manifest Book” (Q5:15). The vast majority of the Mufassirin (excluding the Mu’tazila like Zamakhshari) interpreted the “light” in this verse to refer to Prophet Muhammad (asws), in that in his original reality he is a light from Allah. They include: Imam Suyuti (Tafsir al- Jalalayn), Imam Fakhruddin ar-Razi (Mafatih al-Ghayb), Baydawi (Tafsir Anwar at-Tanzil), Ibn Jawzi (Zad al-Masir), Baghawi (Ma’alim at-Tanzil), Shawkani (Fath al-Qadir), Sayyid Mahmud al-Alusi (Tafsir Ruh al-Ma’ani), Ibn Jarir at-Tabari (Jami’ al-Bayan), al-Khazin in his Tafsir, an- Nasafi (Tafsir al-Madarik), Qurtubi (Ahkam al-Qur’an), Abu’s Su’ud, and others.
2) Allah also said: “O Prophet! We have truly sent you as a witness, a bearer of good news, and a warner, and one who invites to Allah by His Permission, and a light-giving lamp (sirajan munira)” (Q33:45-46). About this verse, Mulla ‘Ali Qari al-Hanafi writes in his Sharh al-Shifa’ (1:505) the following: “Muhammad (asws) is a tremendous light and the source of all lights…sirajan munira means a luminous sun, as in Q25:61. There is in that verse an indication that the sun is the highest of the physical lights, and that other lights are outpourings from it. Similarly, the Prophet (asws) is the highest of the spiritual lights and other lights are derived from him by virtue of his mediating connection and pivotal rank in the sphere of creation. This is also inferred from the hadith ‘The first thing Allah created is my light, O Jabir!’”
3) As for the verse (Q18:110): “Say, I am a human like you who is Divinely inspired…”, then this is no contradiction to saying that the Prophet (asws) is created from the Light of Allah. The poet said: “Muhammad is a human being, but not like humankind; he is a precious ruby, while people are stones.” The ruby is also a stone, but it has special distinctions and qualities that set it apart from other stones. Nor do we mean by “light” the physical light that we see when we turn on the switch in our rooms (even though his light did have a material aspect and on occasion manifested physically). Rather, there are other lights besides the purely material, which can be seen in such sayings of his (asws) as: “You should keep to the dhikr of Allah, for it is a light for you,” and “Wudu’ is bright light” (Sahih Muslim, # 246). Indeed, he is both the “light from Allah” and a “human being,” and the inability to grasp both aspects of his blessed being is the shortcoming of the individual.
Furthermore, this verse only means that he is a human creature, in other words, created and not creator, and that is the only way in which he is like us other humans. Otherwise, which one of us can say that he has received direct revelation from Allah, or that he has went beyond the universe and spoken with, heard, and saw Allah Most High (all at the same time)? It is a grave error to think that this verse means he is like us in all aspects, for he himself (asws) also said, “I am not like you…,” as we will see below. This image of him and attitude towards him is the exact and fundamental reason why the previous nations went astray and were punished. Compare the words of these Muslims today who have no reverence for their Prophet (asws) to the words of the disbelievers before them:
– “… They (Fir’awn and his people) became arrogant, and they were indeed a haughty group. They said, ‘shall we believe in two humans like us, when their tribes are subservient to us?’ So they rejected them, and came to be among those who were utterly destroyed” (Q23:46-48).
– “So they (the disbelievers) tasted the severity of their doing, and for them is a grievous punishment. That is because their Messengers came to them with the clear proofs, and they said, ‘shall (another) human guide us?’” (Q64:5-6).
– “So the disbelievers among his people said, ‘we do not see you except as a human like us…’” (Q11:27).
… and other similar verses. This view of him (asws) as being no different than any other human is a fatal sickness and a stain of disbelief (k ufr) upon the hearts, which must be removed to receive the light and guidance of Allah. Another manifestation of that sickness and skewed understanding of Tawhid can be seen in the response of Iblis to the Order of Allah to prostrate to Adam (asws). He claimed that he was defending T awhid because he refused to bow down before anyone except Allah, and not give “undeserved reverence” to any other creature. It is this same misunderstanding which is seen in those who imagine that by bringing down the Holy Prophet (asws) to our level as simply another human, we are safeguarding the Divine Oneness, when in truth we should be recognizing the awesome status and sublime heights which Allah (Most High) honored His Messenger (asws) with, and giving him his due reverence (asws). Ubayy ibn Ka’b, when the Prophet (asws) struck his hand upon his chest to correct him, said: “I began to sweat profusely and it was as if I was looking at Allah Most High Himself” (Muslim # 1356, Ahmad 5:127, 129). So, for example, in explaining the meaning of the Prophet’s (asws) words: “Do not over-extol me in the same waythat Christians extol their Prophet…” (Bukhari # 3189) – meaning, do not attribute Divinity to me – al-Busairi stated in his poem Burdat al-Madih: “Leave what the Christians claim concerning their Prophet, then decide and say what you wish in praise of him (asws). And attribute to his being what you can of excellence, and attribute to his dignified status as much greatness as you wish.”
Recorded by Imam Ahmad (3:82, 266) and Abu Y a’la (2:284 # 1000) in their Musnads on the authority of Abu Sa’id al-Khudri, and by Bayhaqi (Shu’ab al-Iman, # 4942), Tabarani in his Mu’jam as-Saghir (2:66-67); also recorded by Imam Qushayri with his chain in his Risala (Beirut ed. 1998, p. 141).
From the Sunna
1) It is related that Jabir ibn Abdullah asked the Prophet (asws): “O Messenger of Allah! Please tell me of the first thing Allah created before all others?” and that he (asws) replied: “O Jabir, verily Allah Most E xalted created – before all else – the light of your Prophet from His Light. That light remained (“turned”) in the midst of His Power for as long as He wished, and at that time there was not a Tablet or Pen or Paradise or Fire or angel or heaven or earth. And when Allah wished to create creation, He divided that light into four parts, and from the first made the Pen, from the second made the Tablet, from the third the Throne, (and from the fourth all else)…” 2
Note: This hadith is not found in the current edition of the Musannaf of Abdur-Razzaq, which is only a partial collection since a number of its hadiths are lost. However, we have an indication that it might have been originally in there because Imam Qastallani (one of the commentators on Sahih Bukhari) narrates it in his Mawahib L aduniyya (1:55-56) and atrributes it to Abdur-Razzaq from Jabir, and similarly Hafiz az-Zurqani (one of the commentators on the Muwatta’ of Imam Malik) in his commentary on the Mawahib states the same. ‘Ajluni in Kashf al-Khafa’ (1:265) also narrates the hadith in its entirety from Imam Qastallani. The hadith scholars consider it forged because its chain cannot be found anywhere, and because its wording is flimsy and uncharacteristic of the Prophetic manner of expression.
However, the scholars consider the meaning of this hadith (specifically, the first sentence) authentic and sound, and it is supported by Qur’an (5:15) and other Sahih hadiths. Mahmud al-Alusi in his Tafsir Ruh al-Ma’ani (8:71) cites the hadith of Jabir from Abdur-Razzaq, and in another passage (17:105) he writes: “The Prophet’s (asws) being a mercy to all is linked to the fact that he is the intermediary of the Divine outpouring over all created things, as stated in the report that, The first thing A llah created was the light of your Prophet, O Jabir… and, A llah is the Giver and I am the distributor (Bukhari).” Other scholars who consider the meaning sound and cite it as evidence include (but are not limited to): Sayyidina Abdul-Qadir al-Gaylani al- Hanbali (in many of his books); Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari al-Hanafi in his book on the Mawlid entitled al-Mawrid al-Rawi (p. 40); the Hanafi mufti Abdul-Ghani an-Nabulsi in his al-Hadiqa an-Nadiyya (2:375); Qadi ‘Iyad in his Shifa’ (1:19, 59-60); the Indian Hadith scholar Abdul- Hayy Lucknawi in his al-A thar al-Marfu’a (p. 33-34); and many others… Shaykh Ibn al-Haj al- Maliki (in his Madk hal 2:26-33) spoke at length about the sacred light of the Prophet (asws), and how it was a column of light glorifying Allah Most High, and how it was later deposited into the loins of Adam (alayhi salam); and he ended this section by saying: “So he (asws) is the central pivot of the entire circle of creation, and the original reason for which creation was brought into existence, and because of whose blessing certain times and seasons (e.g. Monday, Rabi’ al-Awwal) were given preference over others. ”
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ja’far al-Kattani wrote in his Nazm al-Mutanathir (# 194) – in which he collected the hadiths which are mutawatir – that “It has been mentioned in some hadiths that the first thing Allah (Most High) created was the 1) Muhammadan Light, 2) the Throne
2 Recorded by the reliable Imam and Hafiz Abdur-Razzaq San’ani (one of the Shaykhs of Bukhari and Muslim) in his Musannaf (one of the earliest collections of hadith). For a lengthy discussion on this hadith, see Imam ‘Ajluni’s Kashf al-Khafa’ (hadith # 827). Hafiz Suyuti (Hawi lil-Fatawi 1:325) states that it has no reliable chain.
(‘A rsh)… (then he proceeded to mention the Pen (Qalam), the T ablet (L awh), the Water (see Q11:7), the Spirit (Ruh), the Intellect (‘A ql))… and in explaining the apparent contradiction between these hadiths, I say that the primacy of the Muhammadan Light is the (absolute) reality, whereas the others are of a relative primacy, in that each of those other creations constitute the first of their kind only. So, the Throne existed before the other dense bodies, and the Intellect before the other subtle bodies, and so on…and Allah knows best.” Hafiz ‘Ajluni states the same in his Kashf al-Khafa’, quoting from other scholars, and he also explained that the meaning of the phrase “from His Light” is not to be understood literally, but rather it is understood in the same way that the Qur’anic verse (Q32:9) about the creation of Adam from the Spirit (Ruh) of Allah is understood.
Finally, there are numerous other narrations which describe a certain physical light-nature about the Prophet (asws), such as the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas in which he states that light would appear to come out between his teeth when he (asws) would speak. 3 And Anas stated: “On the day in which the Messenger of Allah entered Madina, everything in it became lit, and on the day in which he passed away, everything became darkened.” 4 One of the famous supplications which he (asws) used to recite before Fajr was, “and increase my light, and mak e me light” (Sahih Muslim 1:525), which Allah Most High no doubt answered.
2) ‘Irbad ibn Sariya related that the Prophet (asws) said: “I was the Seal of the Prophets in the Presence of Allah when Adam (asws) was between water and clay…and when I was born my mother saw a light with which she could behold the palaces of Syria… ” 5
3) Abu Hurayra related that he was asked, “O Messenger of Allah! When was prophet-hood bestowed upon you?” He replied, “While Adam (asws) was still between spirit and body.” 6 Tajuddin as-Subki said: “It has been stated that Allah created the spirits before the bodies, and the Prophet’s reference to his prophecy in this hadith may be a reference to his blessed spirit and to the ‘reality of realities’. Our minds fall short of knowing such a reality, but its Creator knows it, as do those to whom He extends a madad (support) of light from Him…” 7
3 Recorded by Tirmidhi in his Shama’il (# 14), Darimi (1:44 # 58 Da’if), Diya’ (Muk htara, 13:48), Bayhaqi in Dala’il an-N ubuwwa (1:215), and T abarani in his Mu’jam al-Kabir (11:416 # 12181) and Mu’jam al-A wsat (# 767).
4 Recorded by Tirmidhi (# 3551), Ibn Majah (# 1621), Darimi (# 88), Imam Ahmad (3:268), Hakim (3:59), Ibn Hibban (14:601), Diya’ (Mukhtara, 4:417-20), Abu Ya’la (6:110), Ibn Sa’d (2:274), Hafiz Khatib (13:15), and others, and is Sahih according to Tirmidhi, Hakim, Dhahabi, Ibn Hibban, and Ibn Kathir (Bidaya, 5:274).
5 Recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad (4:184 # 16525, 16537, 5:262 # 21231), Hakim in his Mustadrak (2:418, 600, 616-617 Sahih), Darimi (1:8-9 # 13), Imam Bayhaqi in his Dala’il an-Nubuwwa (1:80-84,110 and 2:8), Ibn Hibban (14:313 # 6404), Tabarani (Mu’jam al-Kabir, 8:206, 18:252-53, 20:353), Ibn Abi ‘Asim in his Kitab as- Sunna (p. 179 # 409), Bazzar (Zawa’id 1:217, 3:113), Bukhari in Tarikh al-Kabir (6:68), Tayalisi (Musnad, # 1236), and Ibn ‘Asakir (1:166-71). Also, Ibn Kathir narrates it in his Tafsir (4:360), as does at-Tabari (28:87), and Ibn al-Jawzi in Kitab al-Wafa’ (p. 91 ch. 21); and Haythami in Majma’ az-Zawa’id (8:222-23 # 13841-42) said that Tabarani and Ahmad narrated it with authentic chains. Imam Suyuti in his Jami’ as-Saghir (# 4359-60) also mentions that the last part is recorded by Ibn Sa’d in his Tabaqat (1:102), and it is Sahih according to Ibn Kathir (Bidaya, 2:275), and many others.
6 Recorded by Tirmidhi in his Sunan (# 3542), Hakim (2:609), Bayhaqi in Dala’il an-Nubuwwa (2:130), Ibn Sa’d in his Tabaqat (7:59), Imam Bukhari in his Tarikh (7:374), Khatib in his Tarikh (3:70, 5:82, 10:146), and others. Tirmidhi and Hakim said it was Sahih. Imam Ahmad (# 16028, 19686, 22128) and Tabarani (M. Kabir, 12:92
# 12571, 12:119 # 12646; M. A wsat, 4:272 # 4175) record the same from Ibn ‘Abbas. See also Sakhawi’s Maqasid al-Hasana (p. 327 # 837).
7 Quoted in Suyuti’s Hawi lil Fatawi (2:100-101) and Imam Qastallani’s Mawahib L aduniyya (1:31-32).
4) Maysara al-Fajr also relates a similar hadith to the one above, in which he asked the Messenger (asws), “When were you a Prophet?” and he replies, “While Adam was between spirit and body.” 8
5) Anas ibn Malik said: “T wo men left the Prophet’s (asws) house in a very dark night and all of a sudden there appeared a light before them. As they separated and went their separate ways, so did the light separate with each of them.” 9
6) Abu Hurayra related that the Prophet (asws) said, “I was the first Prophet to be created and the last to be sent,” and in another narration, “the first person to be created.” 10 Imam Suyuti also cites it in the first chapter of his Khasa’is al-Kubra, titled “The uniqueness of the Prophet (asws) in being the first of the Prophets to be created, the priority of his prophet- hood, and the taking of the Covenant (mithaq) with him.” He also mentions (Khasa’is 1:102) that Bayhaqi (in his Dala’il 5:483) and Ibn ‘Asakir (in his Tarikh Dimashq) record that Allah Most High showed Adam all of his future children, and among these he saw a glorious light and asked, “Who is this one?” “This is your son Ahmad; he is the first, and the last, and will be the first intercessor.”
7) Ibn ‘Abbas said that, “The spirit of the Prophet (asws) was a light in front of Allah 2000 years before He created Adam. That light glorified Him and the angels glorified by his glorification. When Allah created Adam (asws), He cast that light into his loins.” 11 And he (asws) said, “Allah created His creation in darkness, then He cast upon it from His light.” 12 Imam Fakhruddin ar-Razi wrote (Tafsir of Q2:253) that the angels were commanded to prostrate to Adam only because of the light of Muhammad (asws) which shined upon
8 RecordedbyImamBukhariinhisTarikhal-Kabir(7:374#1606),ImamAhmad(4:66,5:59,379),Tabarani (Mu’jam al-Kabir, 20:353), Hakim (2:608-09 Sahih), Ibn Abi Shayba (8:438), Abu Nu’aym (Hilya, 7:122 and 9:53), Ibn Abi ‘Asim (K Sunna p. 179 # 410-11, Ahad wa Mathani 5:347), Imam Bayhaqi in Dala’il an-Nubuwwa (1:85, 2:129), Ibn Sa’d (7:60), Bazzar (Zawa’id, 3:112), Ibn ‘Adiyy (4:1486), Ibn Qani’ (1:347), ar-Rafi’i in A k hbar Qazwin (2:243-44), and others. It is Sahih according to Haythami (Majma’ Zawa’id, 8:223), Suyuti (Khasa’is al- Kubra, p. 3-4), Diya’ al-Maqdisi (Mukhtara, 9:142-43), and others.
9 Recorded by Imam Bukhari in his Sahih (# 445, 3367, 3521), Imam Ahmad (# 11955, 12511, 13367), Hakim (3:288 Sahih), Ibn Hibban (5:376 # 2030, 5:378 # 2032), Tayalisi (# 2147), Ibn Sa’d (Tabaqat, 3:606), ‘Abd ibn Humayd (# 1242), Nasa’i in Fada’il as-Sahaba (# 141), Ruyani in his Musnad (2:389 # 1378), and Bayhaqi in his Dala’il (6:77-78). The two men referred to were Usayd ibn Hudayr and ‘Abbad ibn Bishr, and it refers to the light of the Prophet (asws).
10 Recorded by Ibn Abi Shayba (Musannaf, 8:131), Abu Nu’aym in his Dala’il an-Nubuwwa (p. 6), Ibn Sa’d in his Tabaqat (1:149), Daylami (Musnad Firdaws, 3:282 # 4850 and 4:411 # 7190), Ibn ‘Adiyy (Kamil, 3:919, 1209), Tabari (Tafsir, 15:10, 21:125-26), Baghawi (Tafsir, 3:508), Ibn Abi Hatim in his Tafsir (in connection to verse Q33:7 which says “We took from the prophets their covenant, and from you, and Nuh…”), with many chains of transmission. Imam Suyuti in his Tafsir (Durr al-Manthur 5:184) records it and states that it is also recorded by Ibn Mardawayh and Ibn ‘Asakir. Haythami (Majma’ 1:72) said: “Recorded by Bazzar with trustworthy narrators except one who is unknown (majhul).” However, Tabarani (M. Kabir, 22:333) and Ibn Abi ‘Asim recorded this hadith with similar wording, with a chain of trustworthy narrators accrding to Haythami (Majma’ 8:224). Hadith Sahih. Cf. Hafiz ‘Ajluni in his Kashf al-Khafa’ (# 2006-07).
11 Qadi ‘Iyad narrates it in his Shifa’ (1:59), in the chapter on the nobility of the Prophet’s lineage, and Imam Suyuti states in Manahil as-Safa’ (p. 53 # 128): “Ibn Abi Umar al-‘Adani recordes it in his Musnad” (see also Matalib ‘A liya, 4:360). Also recorded by D aylami in his F irdaws (2:379 # 3009).
12 Recorded from Ibn ‘Amr by T irmidhi (# 2566), Hakim (1:30-31), Bayhaqi (9:3-4), Ibn Hibban (14:43-45
# 6169-70), al-Ajurri in his Shari’a (# 337-38), Imam Ahmad (# 6356, 6559), Tayalisi (Musnad, # 2405), Bazzar (Zawa’id, 3:22 # 2145), Hakim Tirmidhi in his Nawadir al-Usul (Asl # 287), and Ibn Abi ‘Asim in K. Sunna (p. 107-08 # 241-44). Hadith Sahih according to Hakim, Ibn Hibban, Haythami (Majma’, 7:193-94), and others.
Adam’s forehead. Ibn ‘Abbas explained taqallubak a (“your passage/movement”) in Q26:218- 19 (“Who sees you when you stand, and your passage thru those who prostrate”) as meaning: “your descent through the loins of your prophet-ancestors.” 13 Al-Shahrastani in his Kitab al-Milal wa’l Nihal (2:238) states: “The light of Muhammad (asws) went from Sayyidina Ibrahim to Isma’il. Then that light passed through all his children until it arrived at Abdul- Muttalib…and with the blessing of this light Allah repelled Abraha’s harm.” Al-Zuhri (one of the greatest Tabi’in) narrated: “Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib was the most handsome man that had been seen in Quraysh. One day he went out and was seen by an assembly of women of Quraysh, and one of them said, ‘O women of Quraysh, which among you will marry this youth and catch the light that is between his eyes?’ F or verily there was a light between his eyes. Thereafter, Amina bint Wahb married him, and after he joined her she carried the Messenger of Allah (asws).” 14 All of these narrations above address how the original light of Prophet Muhammad (asws) was passed down thru his ancestors – all of whom were upright chaste men and women – down to his father Abdullah. Let us look at a few of his other distinctions and special attributes mentioned in the hadith:
8) Imam Tirmidhi recorded (# 3158-59) an authentic hadith on the authority of Mu’adh ibn Jabal, wherein the Prophet (asws) said: “My Lord came to me in the best image,” and in other narrations, “I saw my Lord in the best image, and He asked me what the angels of the highest assembly argued over. I said I did not know, so He put His ‘Hand’ between my shoulders, and I felt its coolness in my innermost, and the k nowledge of all things between E ast and West came to me…” 15 Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari quotes Ibn Zar’a, who said, concerning a similar hadith narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (recorded by Imam Ahmad and T abarani, and Haythami said it is Sahih in Majma’ az-Zawa’id 1:78-79 # 247, as did al-Munawi in Fayd al-Qadir 4:6), about the Prophet (asws) seeing his Lord, “It is authentic (sahih), and no one denies it except a Mu’tazili.” 16 Also, Ibn Kathir and Ibn Abi Hatim record in their Tafsirs that in the Mi’raj, the Prophet (asws) went beyond the Sidrat al-Muntaha and heard the screeching of the Pens writing the Decree, then saw his Lord.
9) From Thawban: the Prophet (asws) said, “The earth was collected together for me so that I was shown its E asts and Wests, and the kingdom of my community will reach to the extent that it was brought together for me…” 17
13 Recorded in the Tafsirs of Qurtubi, Ibn Kathir, Suyuti, Mawardi, Baghawi, Ibn Jawzi, and many others, and also by Tabarani (Mu’jam al-Kabir 11:362) and Diya’ al-Maqdisi (Mukhtara, 12:101-02). Haythami in his Majma’ az-Zawa’id (7:86, 8:214) said that this was recorded by Bazzar in his Musnad (Zawa’id, 3:62, 110) with a chain of trustworthy narrators (thiqat).
14 RecordedbyImamBayhaqiinDala’ilan-Nubuwwa(1:87),ImamTabariinhisTarikh(2:243),Ibnal-Jawziin his Kitab al-Wafa’ (Ch. 16), and others. Ibn Hisham recorded something similar in his Sira.
15 Also recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad (# 16026, # 21093, # 22126), Darimi in his Sunan (2:170
# 2056), T abarani in his Mu’jam Kabir (1:317 # 938; 8:290 # 8117; and also 20:109, 141), Abu Y a’la in his Musnad (4:475 # 2608), Ibn Sa’d in his Tabaqat (7:438), Hafiz al-Khatib in his Tarikh Baghdad (8:151), Ibn Khuzayma (K. Tawhid, p. 130-31), Ibn Abi ‘Asim (K. Sunna, p. 188-192 # 432-442 Sahih), Bazzar (Zawa’id, 3:13-15), Bayhaqi
(A sma’ wa Sifat, p. 444), ‘Abd ibn Humayd (# 681), Ahmad ibn Mani’ (see Ibn Hajar’s Matalib ‘A liya, 4:148), Ruyani (Musnad # 656, 1241), and others. Haythami in Majma’ Zawa’id (7:173, 176-179) and Suyuti in Jami’ as- Saghir (# 4377) said it was Sahih.
16 See his A srar al-Marfu’a (p. 126 # 478). The hadith is recorded by Imam Ahmad (5:157, 171, 175), Ibn Khuzayma in Kitab at-Tawhid (p. 135), Hakim (1:65 Sahih), Tabarani (M. Kabir 10:363, 11:242-43, M. A wsat 6:50), Ibn Abi ‘Asim in Kitab as-Sunna (p. 192 # 441 Sahih), Diya’ Maqdisi in his Muk htara (12:233-34), and others.
17 Recorded by Muslim (Kitab al-F itan, # 5144) and many others.
10) Abu Darda’ said: “When the Messenger of Allah (asws) left us, there was not a bird that flies in the sky but that he had given us some knowledge about it.” 18 This indicates his extensive knowledge of the Unseen given to him by Allah (Most High). He also said, “T ruly, I do not know anything except what my Lord told me.” 19
Qadi ‘Iyad wrote a chapter in his Shifa’ called “The Prophet’s knowledge of the Unseen and future events.” In the beginning of it he wrote: “The hadiths on this subject are like a vast ocean whose depths cannot be plumbed and which does not cease to overflow. This is one aspect of his miracles that is definitely known. We have many hadiths which have reached us by multiple paths of transmission (tawatur) regarding his familiarity with the Unseen.” He then goes on to list 58 concrete examples of the Prophet’s (asws) knowledge of the Unseen and the future, which are mentioned in the hadith collections of: Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasa’i, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Imam Ahmad, Imam Malik, Tabarani, Abu Ya’la, Ibn Hibban, al-Hakim, al-Bayhaqi, Ibn Khuzayma, and others. It would be too long to reproduce that chapter in full, so the interested reader should read the chapter themselves. Allah says about the Prophet (asws), “And he is not stingy of (his knowledge of) the Unseen” (Q81:24).
11) Ibn ‘Abbas and A’isha said, “The Prophet (asws) could see equally well during the darkness of the night and the brightness of the day.” 20
12) Anas, Abu Hurayra, and others related that the Prophet (asws) said, “O people! I am your Imam. Do not precede me in ruk u’ and sujud because in addition to seeing what is before me, I also see what is behind me.” 21 Mujahid stated that this was his (asws) state at all times (see Ibn Hajar’s Fath al-Bari 1:515 and Matalib al-‘A liya 4:140).
13) From Anas: The Prophet (asws) said: “My knowledge after my passing is (the same) as my knowledge during my life.” 22
14) Abu Dharr reported that the Messenger of Allah (asws) said, “Truly I see that which you do not see and hear that which you do not hear…indeed, there is not a space, four fingers wide, except that there is an angel in it bowing its head in prostration to Allah.” 23
18 Recorded by T abarani in his Mu’jam al-Kabir (2:155 # 1647), Imam Ahmad (# 20399), Abu Y a’la (9:46 # 5109), Ibn Hibban (1:267 # 65), Ibn Sa’d (2:354), Bazzar (Musnad 9:341 # 3897, Zawa’id 1:88), Tayalisi (# 481), Ahmad ibn Mani’ (Matalib, 4:214), and others. It is Sahih according to Haythami (Majma’ Zawa’id, 8:263-64) and Busiri (Ithaf as-Sada, 1:133 # 265).
19 See: Ibn Hajar’s Fath al-Bari (13:364) and Isaba fi Tamyiz as-Sahaba (2:619), Ibn Hisham’s Sira (5:203), Tabari in his Tarikh (2:184), and Abu Shaykh in Kitab al-‘Adhama, Bayhaqi (Dala’il, 5:232), and others.
20 Recorded by Bayhaqi in Dala’il an-Nubuwwa (6:74-75, Da’if), while Imam Suyuti said it was Hasan in his Jami’ as-Saghir (# 7027). Also recorded by Daylami (Firdaws, 1:100 # 203), Ibn ‘Adiyy (4:1534), Ibn Bashkuwal in his Sila (1:73), and others from A’isha, and by Baqi ibn Makhlad in his Musnad according to Ibn Hajar.
21 Recorded by Bukhari (# 700), Muslim (# 644-45), Nasa’i (# 804-06), Ibn Majah (# 983), Abu Dawud (# 571- 74), Imam Ahmad (3:161), Ibn Hibban (14:250-51 # 6337-38), Bayhaqi (Sunan, 2:117, 3:100 and Dala’il, 6:73- 74), Abdur-Razzaq (# 2427, # 2462-63), Bazzar (Zawa’id, 1:245), and others.
22 Recorded by Ibn Mandah in his Fawa’id (p. 82 # 56), Hafiz Asbahani in his Targhib (# 1647), and Daylami (see Kanz al-‘Ummal # 2242). Also mentioned by Suyuti in his Khasa’is (2:490) and others.
23 Recorded by Tirmidhi (Kitab az-Zuhd, # 2234), Ibn Majah (# 4180), Imam Ahmad (# 20539), Hakim (4:579), Abu Nu’aym (Hilya 2:217), Tabarani (M. Kabir, 3:201), Abu Shaykh (p. 178 # 509), Ibn ‘Asakir (52:381), and Daylami (1:100 # 202). It is Sahih according to Hakim and Dhahabi.
15) The Prophet (asws) said, “Truly my eyes sleep but my heart does not sleep.” 24
16) Anas ibn Malik reports that the Prophet (asws) said, “O people! Verily I am not like you. Indeed, I spend the night in the (Divine) Presence of my Lord, and it is He Who feeds me and gives me drink.” 25
17) While the Prophet (asws) and some of his companions were on an expedition, a Beduin came and asked for a miracle. The Prophet (asws) pointed at a certain tree and said to the Beduin, “Tell that tree that Allah’s Messenger summons you.” The tree swayed and brought itself out, and came to the presence of the Prophet (asws), saying (in an audible voice), “Peace be upon you, O Messenger of Allah!” The Beduin said, “Now, let it return to its place.” The Prophet (asws) ordered it to return and it did so. Then the Beduin said, “Let me prostrate to you,” and he (asws) replied, “No one is allowed to do that.” The Beduin said, “Then I will kiss your hands and feet,” and the Prophet (asws) allowed him to do so. 26
18) Anas (and others) related: “Once the Messenger (asws) was with a group of Muhajirun and Ansar, when a camel came along and bowed in prostration to him. His companions asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah, when beasts and trees bow in prostration to you, are we not more duty bound to bow in prostration?’ He answered: “It is not appropriate that any human being should prostrate to another human being.” 27 Mu’adh also prostrated to him (asws), and he only said, “Do not.” 28 The Prophet (asws) neither called this shirk nor asked Mu’adh to repeat the Shahada and renew his Islam. Nor did he (asws) call it shirk when Qays ibn Sa’d affirmed his desire to prostrate to him (Abu Dawud # 1828, Hakim 2:187 Sahih), nor did he ask him to renew his Islam. And when Khuzayma ibn Thabit told the Prophet (asws) that he dreamt that he prostrated on his (asws) forehead, the Prophet (asws) lied down and told him, “realize your dream,” and he prostrated on his forehead (Imam Ahmad 5:215 Sahih). We are not encouraging prostration to him – which is haram according to these hadiths, for he forbade that – but rather to point out to those ignorant of his mighty status and blazing light how the Sahaba revered him to such a high level that they found no hesitation in wanting to prostrate to him out of respect. Indeed, Imam Dhahabi confirmed this
24 Bukhari (# 1079, 1874), Muslim (# 1219), Ibn Khuzayma (# 48-49, also: # 1166), Nasa’i (# 1679), Imam Malik (# 243), Hakim (2:431), Ibn Hibban (6:186, 14:297), and many others.
25 Bukhari (# 1827-28), Muslim (# 1844, 1850), Imam Malik (# 590-91), Abu Ya’la (# 1133, 1407, 2874, 3282, 6088 Sahih), Imam Ahmad (# 6125), Ibn Khuzayma (# 2070-72), Ibn Hibban (# 3581), and many others.
26 Darimi (# 16), Abu Ya’la (10:34 # 5662), Ibn Hibban (14:434 Sahih), Bazzar (Zawa’id, 3:133-34), Ruyani (# 37- 38), and Tabarani (M. A wsat, # 5068). It is Sahih according to Hafiz Busiri (Ithaf as-Sada, 9:111 # 7243). Other hadiths about trees moving for him were recorded by Ibn Majah (# 333), Ahmad (4:171), T abarani (M. A wsat, 9:53, 81), and Abu Ya’la (Hasan according to Ibn Hajar in Matalib 4:196-97).
27 RecordedbyIbnAbi‘Asim(AhadwaMathani,4:73),Darimi(#17),ImamAhmad(#12153),Tabarani(M. Kabir 11:356-57, M. A wsat 9:81-82), Bazzar (Zawa’id, 3:150-52 Hasan), Bayhaqi (Dala’il, 6:29), and Ishaq ibn Rahawayh (Matalib, 4:190-91). For more see: Ibn Majah’s Sunan (# 1842), Musnad Ahmad (5:214-15), Diya’ (12:338-39), ‘Abd ibn Humayd (# 216, 1051), and others. Ibn Kathir in his Bidaya (6:137-38) accepts Ahmad’s chain as authentic. Cf Haythami (Majma’ 9:7). As for the clause at the end of some of its narrations “worship your Lord and revere your brother Muslim,” it is not an authentic part of it.
28 Recorded by Ibn Majah (# 1843), Ahmad (4:381), Diya’ (Muk htara, 13:124-25), Bazzar (Zawa’id, 2:179-80), Tabarani (M. Kabir, 5:208, 8:31, 20:52), Hakim (4:172), Ibn Hibban (6:186), Ibn Abi Shayba (3:397), Bayhaqi (Sunan, 7:291-92), T ahawi (Mushk il A thar, 2:210), and Baghawi in his T afsir (Q2:228, 4:34). It is Sahih according to Hakim, Dhahabi, Diya’, Busiri (Ithaf, # 3833), and Haythami (Majma’ 4:309-10).
when he wrote: “Do you not see that the Sahaba, in the immense amount of their love for the Prophet (asws), asked him, “Should we not prostrate to you?” and he replied “No”? And if he had allowed them, they would have prostrated to him as a mark of utter veneration and respect, not as a mark of worship, just as the brothers of Sayyidina Y usuf (asws) prostrated to him. Similarly, the prostration of a Muslim to the grave of the Prophet (asws) is for the intention of magnification and reverence. One is not imputed disbelief (kufr) because of it whatsoever, but he is being disobedient to his command. Let him therefore be informed that this is forbidden. Similarly in the case of one who prays towards his grave… ” 29
19) Imam Malik was asked by the Khalif Abu Ja’far al-Mansur: “Shall I face the Qibla with my back towards the grave of the Messenger of Allah when making du’a?” Imam Malik replied, “How could you turn your face away from him (asws) when he is your means (wasila) and your father Adam’s means to Allah on the Day of Rising? No, rather you should face him (asws) and ask for his intercession so that Allah will grant it to you, for Allah said, ‘If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come to you and asked Allah’s forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah Oft-Returning, Most Merciful (Q4:64)’.” 30 I wonder today whether Imam Malik, for these words of his, would be considered a heretical innovator outside of Islam by some of our self-appointed modern scholars.
20) Sayyidina Umar and others related that the Prophet (asws) said: “When Adam (asws) committed his mistake he said, ‘O my Lord, I am asking Y ou to forgive me for the sake of
29 In his Mu’jam al-Shuyuk h (1:73), in the entry about his Shaykh Ahmad al-Qazwini (# 58).
30 Narrated by Qadi ‘Iyad in his Shifa’ (2:26-27) and Tartib al-Madarik (1:113-14) with an authentic chain, Imam Subki in his Shifa’ as-Siqam (Ch. 4, 7), Qastallani in his Mawahib L aduniyya, Ibn Bashkuwal (Qurbah p. 84), and others. The chain is as follows: a group of the teachers of Qadi ‘Iyad narrated to him from Abu’l Abbas Ahmad ibn Dalhath (one of the Shuyukh of Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr, who is “thiqa hafidh” – Siyar 18:567), from Abu’l Hasan ‘Ali ibn al-Fihri (one of the Shuyukh of Bayhaqi, d. 488H, “muhaqqiq” – Dhahabi’s ‘Ibar 1:227), from Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Faraj al-Jaza’iri (“thiqa” according to Ibn Mundhir – Sam’ani in A nsab 2:55), from Abu’l Hasan ibn al-Muntab (the Qadi of Madina in his time, and one of the top Huffaz of the Malikis – Ibn Farhun in Dibaj and Sakhawi in Tuhfa L atifa), from Ya’qub ibn Ishaq (one of the Shuyukh of Tabarani; Daraqutni: “la ba’sa bih” – Khatib in Tarikh 14:291), from Khalid ibn Humayd al-Iskandarani (d. 169H, a faqih among the companions of Imam Malik – see Tartib al-Madarik 1:178 and Khafaji’s Nasim ar-Riyad 3:397; this is not Ibn Humayd ar-Razi as some have claimed), from Imam Malik (d. 179H). Not one of the Maliki scholars rejected it or stated it was false, and all of them accepted it and acted upon it; so no attention is payed to Ibn Taymiyya, who rejected it, supposedly knowing more about what Imam Malik said or didn’t say than the Maliki scholars themselves! What also supports this is that when the Prophet (asws) himself would visit the graves of Madina and greet them and make du’a, he would face the graves, as is specifically mentioned in the hadiths about
that… meaning facing the grave when making du’a is a Sunna. And when Ibn Umar would come to Madina, he would first visit his (asws) grave and make du’a facing him, and do the same with Abu Bakr and ‘Umar (Hilya, 1:308-09). Nor can Ibn Taymiyya or his followers name a single Sahabi who said it was disliked or prohibited to face his grave (asws) when making du’a. In addition, it is the madhhab of Imam Malik that one makes du’a facing the Prophet’s grave (not the Ka’ba) when one visits and greets him (asws), as related from Malik by Ibn Wahb, Ashhab, and others, and recorded in the books of Maliki Fiqh (e.g. Ibn Mawaz, Ibn Juzayy’s Qawanin Fiqhiyya 1:95, Qarafi’s Dhakhira 3:375-76, Ibn Rushd’s Bayan wa Tahsil 18:108, 444-45, 601-03, etc). The most Imam Malik ever said – as stated in al-Mabsut by Qadi Isma’il (broken chain) – is that it is disliked specifically for residents of Madina to spend hours every day making du’a at his grave, but not for those visiting from outside Madina. There is no book of Maliki Fiqh which states that it is disliked to make du’a at his grave, or which weakens this story of Malik with Abu Ja’far. The other madhhabs also mention specifically facing him (asws) when making du’a at his grave: (Hanafi): Tabaqat al-Hanafiyya 1:282, Ibn Humam’s Sharh Fath al-Qadir 3:180-81; (Shafi’i): Nawawi’s Majmu’ 8:201-02; (Hanbali): Ibn Qudama’s Mughni 3:297-99.
Muhammad.’ Allah said, ‘O Adam, how do you know about Muhammad?’ Adam (asws) replied, ‘O my Lord, after Y ou created me with Y our Hand and breathed into me from Y our spirit, I raised my head and saw written on the heights of the Throne ‘L a Ilaha Illa-A llah Muhammad Rasul-A llah’, so I understood that Y ou would not place next to Y our Name but the most beloved one of Y our creation.’ Allah said, ‘O Adam, I have forgiven you, and were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created you.’” 31
21) About the related hadith which states, “Were it not for you (O Muhammad), I would not have created the heavenly spheres (aflak ),” Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari said in al-A srar al-Marfu’a
(# 754-755): “as-Saghani said it is forged (mawdu’); however, its meaning is sound, as Daylami (Firdaws, 5:338 # 8095) has narrated 32 on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas that the Prophet (asws) said: ‘Jibril (as) came to me and said, ‘O Muhammad! Were it not for you, Paradise would not have been created, and were it not for you, the Fire would not have been created.’” It is also interesting to see what Ibn Taymiyya wrote in his collection of Fatwas (11:95-97): “Muhammad (asws) is the chief (sayyid) of all the children of Adam, 33 the best of creation and the noblest of them in the sight of Allah. This is why some have said that “Allah created the universe due to him,” or that, “Were it not for him, He would not have created a Throne, or Kursi, or a heaven, earth, sun, or moon.” However, this is not a hadith on the
31 Recorded by Hakim in his Mustadrak (2:615) who said it was Sahih while Dhahabi said it was Mawdu’, Imam Bayhaqi in his Dala’il an-Nubuwwa (5:489), Tabarani in his Mu’jam al-A wsat (6:313-14 # 6502) and Mu’jam as- Saghir (2:82-83), Ibn ‘Asakir (Tarikh, 7:437), and al-Ajurri in his Shari’a (p. 432). Their chains all contain Abdur- Rahman ibn Zayd ibn Aslam, who’s narrations are Da’if because of his mistakes and weak memory (see Ibn Hajar’s Tahdhib 6:161-62), as Bayhaqi said. al-Ajurri also related it with another Da’if chain (p. 430) without Abdur-Rahman. The reality is that this hadith is Hasan, not Mawdu’ as Dhahabi stated, for the following reasons. 1) Abdur-Rahman is not a liar or forger, but only Da’if, and the text is not disclaimed (munk ar). He is also one of the narrators in Ahmad’s Musnad (# 5465, 10968-69), which is established as not having a single Mawdu’ hadith. Bayhaqi also records this in his Dala’il, in which, as he said in its introduction, he did not put any forged reports according to him. We also see Imam Shafi’i himself accepting his narrations as proof for certain positions of halal and haram in his madhhab (Kitab al-Umm 2:256, and his Musnad p. 340 # 607). 2) It has other supporting narrations with stronger chains, which do not contain Abdur-Rahman: A) Hafiz Abu’l Shaykh (K. ‘Adhama, p. 391 # 1075) and Ibn Mundhir in his Tafsir narrated this hadith thru Muhammad al-Baqir from his grandparents, as cited by Suyuti in his Tafsir Durr al-Manthur (1:142, of Q2:37). B) The most authentic chain for this hadith is not thru ‘Umar but thru Maysarat al-Fajr, and is narrated by the Hafiz Abu’l Husayn Ibn Bishran (one of the Shuyukh of Bayhaqi and al-Khatib), as recorded by Ibn Jawzi in his Kitab al-Wafa’ 1:33 (which he said contains only authentic narrations) and Burhan ad-Din al-Halabi in his Sira (1:355), with a strong and sound chain (see: Salihi in Subul al-Huda 1:85-86). All of its narrators are trustworthy (thiqa sahih) except one (Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Ishaq ibn Salih), who is Saduq (see Khatib’s Tarik h 4:28), making this narration by itself Hasan or even Sahih. Also, Bayhaqi quotes the first part of this hadith with the same chain from Maysara in hisDala’il (1:84). See Abdullah al-Ghumari’s al-Radd al-Muhk am al-Matin (p. 138-39) and Shaykh Mahmud Mamduh’s Raf’ al-Minara (p. 247-49). Ibn Taymiyya also quotes both versions saying, “these two are like the explanation of the authentic hadiths on this subject” (Fatawa, 2:150, 159). Imam Subki said it was Sahih in his Shifa’ as-Siqam (p. 134-135). So with the Da’if hadith in Hakim and Tabarani, plus Abu’l Shaykh’s and Ibn Mundhir’s narration, plus the strong narration of Ibn Bishran, this hadith becomes at least Hasan.
32 Also recorded by al-Khallal in his Kitab as-Sunna (1:237, 261), and by Hakim (Mustadrak , 2:614-15) who said it was Sahih, and Abu’l Shaykh in Tabaqat al-Muhaddithin, and others. All of the narrators in its chain are trustworthy (thiqat) except ‘Amr ibn Aws al-Ansari, who is “mastur” (unknown status, no one discredited him) according to Dhahabi, which means that at worse the hadith is Da’if, for the narrations of the “mastur” are accepted according to Dhahabi himself (in his Mizan 1:556, 2:40, 93, and 3:426) and others (such as Ibn Salah in his Muqaddima, p. 145). As for Dhahabi’s words “I think it is forged,” they are not accepted because he brings no proof, and its chain contains no liar or forger.
33 A mass-transmitted (mutawatir) hadith recorded by Bukhari (# 4343), Muslim (# 4223), Ibn Hibban (14:381, 398), Hakim (1:30, 4:573 Sahih), and many others.
authority of the Prophet… but it may be explained from a correct aspect… Since the best of the righteous of the children of Adam (asws) is Muhammad (asws), creating him was a desirable end of deep-seated purposeful wisdom, more than for anyone else, and hence the completion of creation and the fulfillment of perfection was attained with Muhammad (asws)… thus it cannot be denied to say that ‘due to him all of this was created,’ or that ‘were it not for him, all this would not have been created,’ so if statements like this are thus explained according to what the Book and the Sunna indicate, then it is acceptable”. Imam Ahmad Dardir (one of the top authorities of the Maliki madhhab, who wrote Sharh as-Saghir, the most relied upon book of Maliki fiqh) similarly states: “E very tangible and intangible blessing (barak a) of Allah Most High in the heavens and the earth emanates from (meaning thru) the barakat of our Prophet Muhammad alayhi salat wa salam 34, who is without doubt the noblest creation of Allah absolutely and without exception… and his light (asws) is the origin of all lights and dense bodies, as he (asws) stated to Jabir. So he is the ontological intermediary (wasita) for all of creation, and had it not been for him there would be nothing created, as Allah said to Adam, ‘Were it not for him, I would not have created you’” (Sharh al-Saghir, 4:777-78).
22) Ka’b al-Ahbar (d. 32H.) said: 35 “Not a day goes by without seventy thousand angels descending upon the grave of the Prophet (asws), surrounding him and sending salawat upon him until night falls. When they ascend another such group of angels take their place and do the same; until when the earth splits open before him (asws), he comes out with 70,000 angels in procession around him.” Related to this, there is consensus 36 among the scholars of the four madhhabs that the blessed place which contains his blessed fragrant body (asws) is superior to any other place on earth, and some (e.g. Ibn ‘Abidin al-Hanafi, Ibn ‘Aqil al-Hanbali, Salim an-Nafrawi al-Maliki) added even superior than the D ivine ‘A rsh.
23) Finally, the Sahabi Abdullah ibn Salam said: “In truth, the noblest and most honorable of all the creations in the sight of Allah is Abu’l Qasim (Muhammad asws).” 37
34 The commentator, Shaykh Ahmad as-Sawi, stated here that it is necessary to believe this, and that whoever denies this has lost the benefit of this world and the Next. Imam Shafi’i himself, in the introduction to his Risala, stated the same thing as Imam Dardir. An indication of this reality can be found in the Prophet’s statement, as recorded by Bukhari (3:1134): “Indeed, Allah is the Giver, and I am the distributor (Qasim)”.
35 Recorded (with authentic chains to Ka’b) by Darimi (1:57 # 94), Bayhaqi (Shu’ab, 3:492), Ibn Mubarak in Kitab az-Zuhd (1:558), Abu Nu’aym (Hilya, 5:390), Qadi Isma’il (Fadl as-Salat, # 102), and Abu’l Shaykh.
36 Consensus on this is documented by: Ibn Habira in Fiqh ‘ala Madhahib al-A ’imma al-A rba’a 1:337. Also: (Hanafi): Ibn ‘Abidin (Hashiya, 2:626), Tahtawi (Hashiya Maraqi Falah, p. 70). (Maliki): Qadi ‘Iyad (Shifa’, 2:58), Hattab (Mawahib Jalil, 3:344-45), Qarafi (Dhakhira, 3:378, 381), Nafrawi (Fawakih Dawani, 1:45). (Shafi’i): Nawawi (Majmu’, 7:389), Ibn Kathir (Bidaya, 3:205), Suyuti (Khasa’is, 2:351), Munawi (Fayd Qadir, 6:264). (Hanbali): Ibn ‘Aqil (see: Subki’s Shifa’ Siqam and Ibn Qayyim’s Bada’i Fawa’id 2:147), Ibn Muflih (Mubdi’, 3:70). 37 Recorded by Bayhaqi in his Dala’il an-Nubuwwa (5:485) and Shu’ab al-Iman (1:170, 331), Ibn Mubarak (Kitab az- Zuhd, # 398), Ibn Abi Shayba (7:419), Hakim (4:568), and al-Harith in his Musnad (Zawa’id, p. 283 # 939). It is Sahih according to Hakim, Dhahabi, and Busiri (Ithaf, 10:583, 641). See also Darimi’s Sunan (# 47-48) and Tayalisi’s Musnad (# 252) for narrations of similar import.