The 4 Orthodox Schools Of Law Within Sunni Islam

Hanafi School – Imam Abu Hanifah al-Nu’man b. Thabit (80 – 148 AH)
Shafi’i School – Imam Muhammad b. Idris al-Shafi’i (150- 206 AH)
Maliki School – Imam Malik b. Anas (93 – 179 AH)
Hanbali School – Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal (165 – 240 AH)

Who are the Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah?

According to (ijma) consensus of our “Al-Salaf Al-Salih (The Righteous Predecessors) statements”

” AHLAS-SUNNAH WAL JAMAAH” are only those who follow one of the Orthodox Schools:

Schools of jurisprudence (Fiqh) Hanafi, Shafi, Maliki, Hanbali

Schools of Islamic Theology (Aqidah) Ashʿarīyyah, Mātūrīd’iyyah or Atharī (True)



Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) reports that Nabi (Sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Allah Ta’ala will never allow my Ummah to unite upon misguidance, Allah Ta’ala’s assistance is with the group and whomsoever deviates from the group will be cast into the fire”.

(Sunan Tirmidhi, Hadith: 2167)

The above hadith has been reported via several other chains, and parts of the above narration are also supported by various authentic hadiths recorded in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim which have a similar meaning as the hadith in question. It is therefore declared as reliable.

(See Sunan ibn Majah and Misbahus Zujajah, Hadith: 3950, Al Mu’jamul Kabir, Hadith: 13623, Majma’uz Zawaid vol. 5 pg. 218, Mustadrak Hakim, vol. 1 pg. 115 and Al Maqasidul Hasanah, Hadith: 1288. Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 1367 and Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 949)

Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Albani

Commentary on this hadith:

Muhammad ‘Abd al-Ra’uf al-Munawi (also Al-Manawi)

explains that Ummah here refers to ‘The ‘Ulama [Scholars] of the Ummah’. Since the general masses refer to the ‘Ulama for issues pertaining to Din and resort to the 

‘Ulama when any calamity befalls them, Allah Ta’ala has protected the ‘Ulama. ‘Allamah Tibi (rahimahullah) further states that this refers to [The ‘Ulama] of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah.

(Faydul Qadir, under Hadith: 1818. Also see Mirqat, Hadith: 173 and Tuhfatul Ahwadhi, Hadith: 2167)

Based on the above explanation, the Hadith will mean that the ‘Ulama of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah will never have consensus/be unanimous on misguidance.

Abu ‘Eesa at-Tirmidhi said in his Sunan: What is meant by the jamaa‘ah (the main body of the Muslims), according to the scholars, is the scholars of fiqh, knowledge and hadith.

Al-Mulla ‘Ali al-Qaari said: The hadith indicates that if the Muslims unanimously agree on something, then it must be true, and what is meant is the unanimous agreement of the scholars. The consensus of the common folk does not carry any weight, because it is not based on knowledge.

“You have to follow the Congregation for verily Allah will not make the largest group of Muhammad’s Community agree on error.” Ibn Abi Shayba relates it with a sound chain.

Verily Allah will not make Muhammad’s Community agree on error.” al-Hakim narrated it in the Mustadrak (1:116, 177) with a sound (sahih) chain.

“Verily Allah will not make my Community agree on error” Tirmidhi with a fair (hasan) chain.

“My Community shall not agree upon misguidance. Therefore, you must stay with the Congregation, and Allah’s hand is over the Congregation.“Tabarani narrated it with two chains from Ibn `Umar, one of which is sound (sahih). See Haythami, Majma` al-zawa’id, chapter on the obligation to stay with the Congregation.

“That which the Muslims consider good, Allah considers good.” Ahmad in the Musnad (#3599) relates it from the words of Ibn Mas`ud (mawquf) with a sound chain.

Many people today like to classify themselves as belonging to the Saved Sect (Firqatun-Najiyyah) – Ahl as-Sunnah Wa’l Jama’ah; but do these people really know which is the Saved Sect, from the many sects we have today? The following is an attempt to clarify some misconceptions by way of definitive proofs from the Qur’an and Sunnah, as well as quotes from the profoundly learned Classical Scholars of Islam. Know that there is only one Saved Sect in Islam, and this is the original pristine form of Islam that has been transmitted to us by Allah Subhana Wa Ta’ala in his Qur’an, his Rasul (Peace and blessings be upon him), the blessed Companions (may Allah be pleased with them all) and the great scholars of Islam (Allah’s mercy be upon them all) who have been following their Straight Path for more than one thousand years of Islam’s history. The first question that should be raised is: “What differentiates one sect from another sect?” The answer to this is simple and definitive! Know that the chief characteristic that distinguishes one sect from another, lies not in the differences of opinion that its scholars have attained by making ijtihad from the sources of the Shari’ah (this leads to the formation of the Madhhabs), but rather the actual belief (aqid’ah or i’tiqad in Arabic) that the scholars and laity of the sect in question are clinging onto – since the founding of their respective sect.

According to the unknown author of the book Belief and Islam (pp. 78-9), the faith of the People of the Sunnah and Jama’ah was spread as follows:

“Nowadays, some mouths frequently use the name of ‘Salafiyya’. Every Muslim should know very well that in Islam there is nothing in the name of the Madhhab of Salafiyya but there is the Madhhab of the Salaf as-salihin who were the Muslims of the first two Islamic centuries (i.e; the Companions, their successors and the followers of the successors) which were lauded in a Hadith sharif.

The ulama of Islam who came in the third and fourth centuries are called Khalaf as-sadiqin. The i’tiqad (belief) of these honourable people is called the Madhhab of Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah. This is the Madhhab of Iman, tenets of faith. The Iman held by the Sahaba al-Kiram (may Allah be pleased with them all) and by theTabi’un (Allah’s mercy be upon them all) was the same.

There was NO difference between their beliefs. Today most Muslims in the world are in the Madhhab of Ahl as-Sunnah (i.e; most Muslim’s claim to be Sunni’s). All the seventy-two heretical groups (see later for the actual Hadith and its commentary) of bid’ah appeared (mainly) after the second century of Islam. Founders of some of them lived earlier, but it was after the Tabi’un that their books were written, and that they appeared in groups and defied the Ahl as-Sunnah.

Rasulullah (Peace and blessings be upon him) brought the beliefs of Ahl as-Sunnah. The Sahaba al-kiram (may Allah be pleased with them all) derived these teachings of Iman from the source (the Qur’an and Sunnah). And the Tabi’un (successors), in their turn, learned these teachings from the Sahaba al-kiram. And from them their successors learned, thus the teachings of Ahl as-Sunnah reached us by way of transmission and tawatur (through many undeniable chains of transmission).

These teachings cannot be explored by way of reasoning. Intellect cannot change them and will only help understand them. That is, intellect is necessary for understanding them, for realizing that they are right and for knowing their value. All the scholars of Hadith held the beliefs of the Ahl as-Sunnah.

The Imams of the four Madhhabs in deeds, too, were in this Madhhab. Also, al-Maturidi and al-Ashari (Allah’s mercy be upon them), the two Imam’s of our Madhhab in beliefs, were in the Madhhab of the Ahl as-Sunnah. Both of these Imams promulgated this Madhhab. They always defended this Madhhab against heretics and materialists, who had been stuck in the bogs of ancient Greek philosophy. Though they were contemporaries, they lived in different places and the ways of thinking and behaving of the offenders they had met were different, so the methods of defence used and the answers given by these two great scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah were different. But this does not mean that they belonged to different Madhhabs (rather they were both from the Ahl as-Sunnah). Hundreds of thousands of profoundly learned ulama and awliya (friends of Allah) coming after these two exalted Imams studied their books and stated in consensus that they both belonged to the Madhhab of the Ahl as-Sunnah. The scholars of the Ahl as-Sunnah took the nass (Qur’an and Sunnah) with their outward meanings. That is, they gave the ayats and Hadiths their outward meanings, and did not explain away (ta’wil) thenass or change these meanings unless there was a darura (necessity) to do so. And they never made any changes with their personal knowledge or opinions.

But those who belonged to heretical groups and the la-Madhhabi (those who do not belong to one of the four Madhhabs) did not hesitate to change the teachings of Iman and Ibadat (worship) as they had learned from (the books of) Greek philosophers and from sham scientists, who were Islam’s adversaries.”

Classical Scholars Evidence

Let us now see what the definition of Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah was according to the classical scholars of this aided, Victorious sect (Tai’fatul-Mansoorah) of Islam.

(1) Shaykh al-Islam Ahmad ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 974/1567; R.A.)

Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Haytami defined the Sunni Muslims as follows in his book Fath al-jawad:

“A mubtadi (innovator) is the person who does not have the faith (aqid’ah) conveyed unanimously by the Ahl as-Sunnah. This unanimity was transmitted by the two great Imam’s Abu’l Hasan al-Ashari (d.324/936; Rahimahullah) and Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d.333/944; Rahimahullah) and the scholars who followed their path.” Hafiz

Ibn Hajar al-Haytami also said in his book al-Fatawa al-Hadithiyya (pg. 205):  “Man of bid’ah means one whose beliefs are different from the Ahl as-Sunnah faith. The Ahl as-Sunnah faith, is the faith of Abu’l Hasan al-Ashari, Abu Mansur al-Maturidi and those who followed them. One who brings forth something which is not approved by Islam becomes a man of bid’ah.”

(2) Imam Ahmad Shihab ad-Din al Qalyubi (d.1069/1659; R.A.)

Imam al-Qalyubi wrote on the fourth volume of his marginalia to the book Kanz ar-raghibin:

“One who departs from what Abu’l Hasan al-Ashari and Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (Allah’s mercy be upon them) reported is not a Sunni. These two Imam’s followed the footprints of Rasulullah (Peace be upon him) and his Sahaba (may Allah be pleased with them all).”

(3) Imam Abdullah ibn Alawi al-Haddad (d. 1132 AH; Rahimahullah)

Imam al-Haddad stated in The Book of Assistance (pg. 40):

“You must correct and protect your beliefs and conform to the pattern of the party of salvation, who are those known from among the other Islamic factions as the “People of the Sunnah and Jama’ah” (Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah). They are those who firmly adhere to the way of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him), and of his Companions (may Allah be pleased with them all).

If you look with a sound understanding into those passages relating to the sciences of faith in the Book (Qur’an), the Sunnah, and the saying of the virtuous predecessors, whether they be Companions or followers, you will know for certain that the truth is with the party called the Ashari (NB-the Maturidi’s are also upon the truth), named after the Shaykh Abu’l Hasan al-Ashari, may Allah have mercy on him, who systematized the foundations of the creed of the people of the truth, and recorded its earliest versions, these being the beliefs with the Companions and the best among the followers agreed upon.”

(4) Imam Abdal Ghani an-Nablusi (d. 1143/1733; Rahimahullah)

Imam an-Nablusi stated in his book al-Hadiqat an-Nadiyya (vol. 2, pg. 103):

“Jama’ah is rahma, that is, the union of Muslims on truth brings Allahu ta’ala’s Compassion. Tafriqa is adhab, that is, separation from the Community of Muslims brings about punishment from Allahu ta’ala. Hence, it is necessary for every Muslim to unite with those who are on the right path. He must join and believe like them even if they are only a small group. The right path is the path of as-Sahaba al-Kiram. Those who follow this path are called Ahl as-Sunnah Wa’l Jama’ah.

It should not confuse us that many heretical groups appeared after the time of as-Sahaba al-Kiram. 

Al-Imam al-Bayhaqi (d. 458/1066; Rahimahullah) said, ‘When Muslims go astray, you should follow the right path of those who came before them! You should not give up that path even if you are left alone on the path!‘ 

Najm ad-Din al-Ghazzi (d. 1061/1651; Rahimahullah) wrote: Ahl as-Sunnah Wa’l Jama’ah are those ulama who keep on the right path of Rasullullah (Peace and blessings be upon him) and as-Sahaba al-Kiram. As-Sawad al-Azam, that is, the majority of Islamic scholars, have followed this right path. The Firqatun-Naajiyyah which was defined to be the group of salvation among the seventy three groups is this true Jama’ah.

The Qur’an al-Karim declares, Do not disunite! This ayat meansDo not disunite in i’tiqad, in the teachings of beliefs! Most ulama, for example, Abdullah ibn Masood (may Allah be pleased with him), interpreted this ayat as above and said that it meant, Do not deviate from the right path by following your desires and corrupt ideas. This ayat does not mean that there should be no disagreement in the knowledge of fiqh.

It forbids separation which causes discord and dissension in the knowledge of i’tiqad (see Imam al-Qurtubi’s opinion later). The disagreement in the knowledge (of fiqh) derived through ijtihad in the field of practices (amal) is not a discord, because such disagreement has brought to sight the rights, the fards and the subtle teachings in amal and Ibadah (worship). As-Sahaba al-kiram (Allah be pleased with them all), too, differed from one another in those teachings that explained the daily life, but there was no disagreement among them in the knowledge of i’tiqad.”

(5) Allamah Sayyid Ahmad at-Tahtawi (d. 1231/1816; Rahimahullah)

Allamah Sayyid Ahmad at-Tahtawi, a great Hanafi fiqh scholar of Egypt, wrote on the subject of Zabayih‘ in his Hashiya al-Durr al-Mukhtar:

“According to the majority of scholars of tafsir, the ayat,

They parted into groups in the religion,‘ referred to the people of bid’ah who would arise in this Ummah. In a Hadith reported by Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), Rasulullah (Peace and blessings be upon him) said to Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her), ‘The ayat about the partitions into groups in the religion refers to the people of bid’ah and to the followers of their nafs who would arise in this Ummah.’ Allah declared in the 153rd ayat of Surah Al-An’am,This is My Straight path, so follow it! Follow not other ways, lest you be parted from His way!‘ (that is, Jews, Christians, and other heretics departed from the right path; you should not part like them!). In the 103rd ayat of Surah Al-Imran, Allah declares, ‘And hold fast, all of you together, to the rope of Allah, and do not separate!‘ (see later for a brief commentary). Some scholars of tafsir said that Allah’s rope meant Jama’ah, unity. The command, ‘Do not separate‘, shows that it is so and the Jama’ah are the possessors of fiqh and ilm (knowledge). One who descents from fuqaha (scholars of fiqh) as much as a span falls into heresy, becomes deprived of Allah’s help and deserves Hell, because the fuqaha have been on the right path and have held on to the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Peace and blessings be upon him) and on to the path of al-Khulafa ar-Rashideen, the Four Khaliphs (may Allah be pleased with them). As-Sawad al-Azam, that is, the majority of the Muslims, are on the path of fuqaha. Those who depart from their path will burn in the fire of Hell. O believers! Follow the unique group which is protected against Hell! And this group is the one that is called Ahl as-Sunnah Wa’l Jama’ah. For, Allah’s help, protection and guidance are for the followers of this group, and His wrath and punishment are for those who dissent from this group. Today, this group of salvation comes together in the Four Madhhabs, namely the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali.”

(6) Imaam ibn `Asaakir writes in Tabyeenu Kidhbil Muftari, p.410:

“The majority of the `Ulamaa in all the lands were upon the Ash`ari Madh-hab (in `Aqeedah), and the A’immah of all the cities in all eras called towards it. Were there any of the Fuqahaa of the Hanafiyyah, the Maalikiyyah and the Shaafi`iyyah except that they were either in agreement with it, or attributed themselves to it, or were pleased with the praiseworthy effort he (Imaam al-Ash`ari) had made in the Deen of Allaah?”

(7) Allamah Sayyid Ahmad at-Tahtawi, a great Hanafi fiqh scholar of Egypt, wrote on the subject of Zabayih‘ in his Hashiya al-Durr al-Mukhtar:

It is very important to have unity in the Ummah, and to achieve this goal of unity it is incumbent that the whole Ummah has the correct and preserved aqidah of the Salaf as-salihin (may Allah be pleased with them all); since Allah will no doubt ask us about our aqidah if it is not in conformity with the divine revelation and what his Messenger (Peace and blessings be upon him) transmitted to us. The way of the Salaf as-salihin is the way of the saved sect of the Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah. And we should all know that the Jama’ah is the sect which has the most correct and united aqid’ah out of all other Jama’ahs. To know what is the real Jama’ah, one must look into the Qur’an and Hadith for evidence. If one was to look deeply in to this matter with an open and scholarly mind, one will come to the conclusion that this great Jama’ah is the one which is composed of the foremost scholars of Qur’anic commentary, Hadith, fiqh and other Islamic sciences; it is no doubt the Jama’ah which has had the greatest following throughout Islamic history in terms of scholars and laity, and this alone is the main body of Islam which represents the views of the great mass of believers (as-Sawad al-Azam) as we shall see from the Hadith evidence below. Let us now see what Allah ta’ala has said about unity and schism in the Holy Qur’an.

(8) Imaam ibn as-Subki writes in at-Tabaqaat

“Shaykhul Islaam Al-`Izz ibn `Abdis Salaam mentioned that the Shaafi`is, the Maalikis, the Hanafis and the great ones among the Hanbalis were all unanimous upon the `Aqeedah of (Imaam al-Ash`ari). His contemporary, the Shaykh of the Maalikis of that time, Imaam Abu `Amr ibn al-Haajib, agreed with him on this, as did another contemporary of his: the Shaykh of the Hanafis of that time, Imaam Jamaal-ud-Deen al-Haseeri.”

(9) Imam Sayf ad-Din al-Amidi (d. 631/1233; Rahimahullah) 

said in his al-Ihkam fi usul al-ahkam (The proficiency: on the fundamentals of legal rulings, pg. 295) with regard to the above Qur’anic verse:

“Allah has forbidden separation, and disagreement with consensus (ijma) is separation.”

Hence, if Allah has forbidden separation then surely we must all unite on the unanimously accepted aqid’ah of our pious predecessors. And I have already quoted Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (Rahimahullah) as saying: “This unanimity (in aqidah) was transmitted by the two great Imam’s Abu’l Hasan al-Ashari and Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (Allah’s mercy be upon them) and the scholars who followed their path.

(10) Shaykh ‘Abdul Haq Muhaddith-e-Dehelwi (may Allah be pleased with him) (d.1052 H.) writes in his famous book “Ash’at-ul-Lam’at”: “The group of Muslims on the correct path, who will enter Paradise, are the Ahle-Sunnah-Wal-Jamaah.”

“It is a well known fact that to fully understand Islamic beliefs, intelligence alone is not sufficient. The sources through which we have received Islamic knowledge from the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) are the great pious scholars of Islam. Ahadith and statements of companions clearly prove that the beliefs of the Ahle Sunnah Wal Jamaah are exactly the same as the beliefs of the companions and the pious predecessors (Salaf-e-Saliheen). The new ideas and beliefs have all appeared after the time of our pious predecessor. None of the Sahaba, the Salaf-e-Saliheen or the pious scholars of Islam followed the new ideas or beliefs. They strictly abstained from the groups who followed these deviated ideas and beliefs. Their beliefs and actions opposed these new ideas and beliefs. All the great scholars of Hadith and the great scholars of Fiqh of the four Sunni Schools of thought and their followers all held the belief of the Ahle Sunnah Jamaah. In addition, all the great pious Muslims and the Sufi Saints of the past and present followed the way of the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaah. Their great literary works stand witness to this fact.”

(11) Imam al-Safarini (d.1774 H.) writes in his book Lawami‘ al-Anwar al-Bahiyyah

‘Ahl al-sunnah wa’l-jama‘ah is three groups: Atharis, whose leader is Ahmad b. Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him; Ash‘aris, whose leader is Abu’l-Hasan al-Ash‘ari, may Allah have mercy on him; and Maturidis, whose leader is Abu Mansur al-Maturidi.’(7) Allamah Sayyid Ahmad at-Tahtawi, a great Hanafi fiqh scholar of Egypt, wrote on the subject of ‘Zabayih‘ in his Hashiya al-Durr al-Mukhtar

(12) Hafidh Al-Murtada Az-Zabidi (d.1732 H.) in his book Sharah IhyaUlum al-Din said: 

“If the term Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jama^ah is used broadly, it refers to the people who took the knowledge from the route of Al-Ash^ariyy named Al-Ash^ariyyah, or the people who took their knowledge from the route of Al-Maturidiyy named Al-Maturidiyyah.”

(13) Imam Abu Bakr Muhammed bin Hussein al-Ajurri (d. 320H), in his commentary to the hadith foretelling the division of Ummah into 73 sects from which one of them is the saved sect, says the following:

“The believer strives to be from this saved sect by following the book of Allah Almighty, and the Sunnah of Prophet of Allah, and the Sunnah of the Sahabah may Allah have mercy on them, and the Sunnah of the tabieen after them in good, and the saying of the Imams of the Muslims …such as Sufyan al-Thawri, Al Awzai, Malik bin Anas, Al Shafii, Ahmed bin Hanbal, Abu Ubaid al-Qasim bin Salam, and be on the ways of the Shuyukh, forbid what they forbid, and accept and say what they accept and say, and abandon anything besides it.”
As one can see, path of the saved sect or Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jammah is not limited to “following the Quran and Sunnah”  but in following the Quran, Prophet, Sahabah, Tabiin, as well as the Mujtahid Imams of the Muslims.

Qur’anic Evidence

(1) Surah al-Imran (3:103):

“And hold fast, all of you together, to the rope of Allah and be not divided.”

Imam Sayf ad-Din al-Amidi (d. 631/1233; Rahimahullah) said in his al-Ihkam fi usul al-ahkam (The proficiency: on the fundamentals of legal rulings, pg. 295) with regard to the above Qur’anic verse:

“Allah has forbidden separation, and disagreement with consensus (ijma) is separation.”

Hence, if Allah has forbidden separation then surely we must all unite on the unanimously accepted aqid’ah of our pious predecessors.

And I have already quoted Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (Rahimahullah) as saying:

This unanimity (in aqidah) was transmitted by the two great Imam’s Abu’l Hasan al-Ashari and Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (Allah’s mercy be upon them) and the scholars who followed their path.

Mahmoud Ayoub wrote in The Qur’an and Its Interpreters (vol. II, 275-6):

Ibn Kathir (d. 774/1373; Rahimahullah) interprets therope of God in verse 103 as ‘The covenant of God,‘ citing in support of this interpretation verse 112 below (in Surah al-Imran). Another view, he adds, is that ‘The rope of God‘ here refers to the Qur’an, as reported on the authority of Ali (Allah be pleased with him) who said that ‘The Qur’an is God’s strong rope and the straight way.‘ He cites another Hadith, on the authority of Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (Allah be pleased with him), where the Prophet (Peace be upon him) declared, ‘The book of God is God’s rope stretched from heaven to earth.‘ Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) reported -that the Messenger of God (Peace be upon him) said, ‘Surely this Qur’an is God’s strong rope, manifest light, and beneficial source of healing. It is protection for those who hold fast to it, and a means of salvation for those who abide by it.

Ibn Kathir interprets the injunction, ‘and do not be divided‘ to mean strict adherence to unity among Muslims. He reports on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, ‘God will be pleased with three acts from you, and wrathful with three others. He wishes that you worship Him alone without associating any thing with Him; that you hold fast all together to the rope of God and be not divided; and that you show loyalty to those whom God has set in authority.(Tafsir Ibn Kathir, II, pp. 83-4)

Qurtubi (d. 671/1273; Rahimahullah) agrees with Tabari (d. 923 CE; Rahimahullah) and Ibn Kathir regarding the meaning of ‘the rope of God‘ in verse 103. He cites with approval the famous traditionist Ibn al-Mubarak (d. 181/797; Rahimahullah) who said, ‘Surely unity is God’s rope; therefore hold fast all together to ‘its firm handle (see Qur’an 2:256).’ Qurtubi adds that ‘God enjoins concord and forbids dissension, for in disunity is perdition, and in unity salvation.

Qurtubi offers two possible interpretations of the phrase ‘And be not divided‘:

Be not divided in your religion as were the Jews and Christians divided in their religions‘ and ‘Be not divided in following different false opinions and purposes. Rather, be brothers in God’s religion.

As a jurist, Qurtubi observes that, ‘There is no indication in this verse of the prohibition of disagreement in the branches (furu’) [of fiqh] as this in reality is not dissension. This is because true dissention is one wherein concord and unity become virtually impossible. As for disagreement in judgements based on personal effort (ijtihad), it is due to differences in deducing obligations (fara’id) and the minutiae of law.‘ On page 279, Imam al-Razi (d. 606/1210; Rahimahullah) was quoted as saying in conclusion to his commentary on the above ayat:

‘If a person going down into a well must hold fast to a rope in order that he may not fall in, so also the Book of God, His covenant, religion and obedience to Him, as well as unity and harmony among the people of faith are means of security for anyone who holds fast to them from falling into the bottom of Hell.’”  

(2) Surah al-Imran (3:105):

And be not like those who separated and disputed after the clear proofs had come unto them: For such there is an awful doom.

(3) Surah al-Imran (3:110):

Ye are the best community that has been raised up for mankind. Ye enjoin the good and forbid the evil; and ye believe in Allah

(4) Surah Al-An’am (6:159):

As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, thou has no part in them in the least: Their affair is with Allah: He will in the end tell them the truth of all that they did.

(5) Surah Al-Mu’minun (23:52-53):

And verily this Ummah of yours is a single Ummah and I am your Lord, so keep your duty unto Me. But they have broken their religion among them into sects, each sect rejoicing in its tenets.

(6) Surah Al-Rum (30:32):

Those who split up their Religion, and become Sects, each sect exulting in its tenets.

(7) Surah Al-Nisa (4:115):

He that disobeys the Apostle (Muhammad) after guidance has been made clear to him and follows a way other than that of the believers, We appoint for him that unto which he himself hath turned, and expose him unto Hell – a hapless journey’s end!

(8) Surah Al-An’am (6:153):

This is My Straight path, so follow it. Follow not other ways, lest ye be parted from His way. This has he ordained for you, that ye may ward off (evil).

Hadith Evidence

(1) Imam Abu Dawood (Rahimahullah) has quoted the well known Hadith concerning the division of the Muslim Ummah into seventy-three sects in his Sunan (3/4580, English edn):

Abu Amir al-Hawdhani said, “Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan (may Allah be pleased with him) stood among us and said, ‘Beware! The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) stood among us and said’: ‘Beware! The People of the Book before (you) were split up into 72 sects, and this community will be split up into 73, seventy-two of them will go to Hell and one of them will go to Paradise, and it is the majority group (Jama’ah).’

Another version of the above Hadith has been reported by Hafiz Ibn Kathir (Rahimahullah) in The signs before the day of Judgement (pg. 14):

“Awf ibn Malik reported that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, ‘The Jews split into 71 sects: one will enter Paradise and 70 will enter Hell. The Christians split into 72 sects: 71 will enter Hell and one will enter Paradise. By Him in Whose hand is my soul, my Ummah will split into 73 sects: one will enter Paradise and 72 will enter Hell.’ Someone asked, ‘O Messenger ofAllah (Peace be upon him), who will they be?’ He replied, ‘The main body of the Muslims (al-Jama’ah).’ Awf ibn Malik is the only one who reported this Hadith, and its isnad is acceptable.” And in another version of this Hadith the Prophet (Peace be upon him) goes onto say that the saved sect, “…Are those who follow my and my Sahaba’s path” (Tirmidhi, vol. 2, pg. 89)

Shaykh al-Islam Ahmad al-Sirhindi (d. 1034/1624; Rahimahullah) who is regarded by many people in the Indian sub-continent as a great renovator of the Tenth Islamic Century (Mujaddid alf Thani) wrote in his Maktubat (Vol. 3, Letter 38):
“It was declared in a Hadith that this Ummah would part into 73 groups, 72 of which would go to Hell. This Hadith informs us that the 72 groups will be tormented in the Fire of Hell. It does not inform us that they will remain in torment eternally. Remaining in the torment of Hell Fire eternally is for those who do not have Iman. That is, it is for disbelievers. The 72 groups, on account of their corrupt beliefs, will go to Hell and will burn as much as the corruptness of their beliefs. One group, the 73rd, will be saved from Hell Fire because their belief is not corrupt. If among the members of this one group there are those who committed evil deeds and if these evil deeds of theirs have not been forgiven through repentance or intercession, it is possible that these, too, will burn in Hell as much as their sins. All of those who are in the 72 groups will go to Hell. But none of them will remain in Hell eternally. Not all of those who are in this one group will go to Hell. Of these only those who have committed evil deeds will go to Hell. The 72 reported groups of bid’ah, which will go to Hell, should not be called disbelievers, because they are Ahl al-Qibla (people of the Qibla in prayer). But, of these, the ones who disbelieve those facts in the Deen that are indispensably required to be believed, as well as those who deny the rules of the Shari’ah which every Muslim has heard and knows, become disbelievers.”

In another letter (vol. 1, letter 80) he said:

“There is no doubt whatsoever that the sect that made conforming to the conduct of the Prophet’s Companions (may Allah be pleased with them all) necessary, that alone is the Ahl as Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah.”
Shaykh Abdal Qadir al-Jilani (d. 561/1166; Rahimahullah) stated in his commentary to the above Hadith in Ghunyat at-Talibin (pg. 90),
“The Believer should adapt himself to the Sunnah and to the Jama’ah. The Sunnah is the way shown by Rasulullah (Peace be upon him). The Jama’ah is composed of the things done unanimously by the Sahaba al-Kiram who lived in the time of the four caliphs called Khulafa’ ar-Rashidin (and others in their path). A Muslim must prevent the multiplication of the men of bid’ah and keep away from them, and should not greet them (as given in many Hadith on this issue). Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullah), the Imam of our Madhhab, said that greeting a man ofbid’ah meant loving him since it had been declared in a Hadith, ‘Disseminate (your) greeting (salaam)! Love one another in this way!” He also said (pg. 143): “The title, Ahl as-Sunnah, which the innovators have expressed for themselves is not appropriate for them.

Although Ibn Taymiyya was accused of holding certain corrupt points in his aqid’ah, which led so many scholars to denounce him for his heresy, he never the less hit the right point when he described those who are the real Sunni’s in his Aqeedat-il-Wasitiyyah (pg. 154):

” Their creed is the religion of Islam which was sent to the world by Allah through the Prophet (Peace be upon him). But the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, ‘My Ummah will get divided into 73 sects and each one will go to Hell save one and that one is the Jama’at.’ Also in one Hadith he said, ‘They are those people who will follow this path which I and my Sahaba follow today.’ Therefore they have caught hold of Islam unalloyed from every adulteration and these are the people of Ahl as-Sunnah Wa’l Jama’ah. This group includes the truthful, the martyrs and the virtuous; it includes the minarets of guidance, lamps in the darkness and owners of such superiorities and virtues who have been already mentioned. It includes the saints and also those Imams on whose guidance Muslims are unanimous. It is this successful group about which the Prophet (Peace be upon him) has said: ‘One group from my Ummah will always remain dominant with truth; the opponents will never be able to harm its members or afflict them upto the Doomsday.’”

(2) Imam Muslim (Rahimahullah) has collected a number of variant Hadith on the saved sect. He has related a longer version of the last Hadith quoted above:

“Abdal Rahman ibn Shamasa al-Mahri said: ‘I was in the company of Maslama bin Mukhallad and Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas (may Allah be pleased with them).’ Abdullah said, ‘The Hour shall come only when the worst type of people are left on the earth. They will be worse than the people of pre-Islamic days. They will get what ever they ask of Allah.‘ While we were sitting Uqba ibn Amir came, and Maslama said to him, ‘Uqba, listen to what Abdullah says.‘ Uqba said, ‘He knows, so far as I am concerned, I heard the Prophet (Peace be upon him) say: A group of people from my Ummah will continue to fight in obedience to the Command of Allah, remaining dominant over their enemies. Those who will opose them shall not do them any harm. They will remain in this condition until the Hour over takes them.‘ (At this) Abdullah said, ‘Yes. Then Allah will raise a wind which will be fragrant like musk and whose touch will be like the touch of silk; (but) it will cause the death of all (faithful) persons, not leaving behind a single person with an iota of faith in his heart. Then only the worst of men will remain to be overwhelmed by the Hour.’” (Sahih Muslim, 3/4721, English ed’n, see also Sahih al-Bukhari, 9/414, English ed’n)

Imam Nawawi (d. 676/1277, Rahimahullah) said in his Sharh Muslim (vol. 2, pg. 143):

“The group of people (mentioned in the above Hadith) consists of scholars, jurisprudents, authorities on Hadith, those who enjoin Good (Maroof) and forbid Evil (Munkar) and all such persons who do good deeds. Such righteous persons may be found spread all over the world.”

Imam al-Tirmidhi (Rahimahullah) said:

“The explanation of al-Jama’ah according to the people of knowledge: They are the people of fiqh, knowledge and Hadith.” (Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 4/2167; Ahmad Shakir ed’n)

Imam Bukhari (Rahimahullah) stated in his Sahih (vol. 9, chapter. 10, English ed’n),

“The statement of the Prophet (Peace be upon him): ‘A group of my followers will remain victorious in their struggle in the cause of the Truth.’ Those are the religious(ly) learned men (Ahl ul-Ilm).”

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Rahimahullah) said about this group:

“If it is not the people of Hadith, then I do not know who they may be.” (Sahih Muslim Sharif-Mukhtasar Sharh Nawawi, vol. 5, pg. 183, W. Zaman)

Qadi Iyad (Rahimahullah) said in ash-Shifa (pg. 188):

“In a Hadith from Abu Umama (Allah be pleased with him), the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, `A group of my community will remain constant to the truth, conquering their enemy until the command of Allah comes to them while they are still in that condition.‘ He was asked, ‘Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him), where are they?‘ He replied, `In Jerusalem.‘”

(3) Imam Muslim (Rahimahullah) has related in his Sahih (3/4553) under the chapter heading ‘Instruction to stick to the main body of the Muslims in the time of the trials and warning against those inviting people to disbelief‘, a Hadith on the authority of Hudhaifa ibn al-Yaman (Allah be pleased with him), who said:

“People used to ask the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) about the good times, but I used to ask him about (the) bad times fearing lest they overtake me. I said, ‘Messenger of Allah, we were in the midst of ignorance and evil, and then God brought us this good (time through Islam). Is there any bad time after this good one?’ He said, ‘Yes’. I asked, ‘Will there be a good time again after that bad time?’ He said, ‘Yes, but therein will be a hidden evil.’ I asked, ‘What will be the evil hidden therein?’ He said, ‘(That time will witness the rise of) the people who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine. You will know good points as well as bad points.’ I asked, ‘Will there be a bad time after this good one?’ He said, ‘Yes. (A time will come) when there will be people standing and inviting at the gates of Hell. Whoso responds to their call, they will throw them into the fire.’ I said, ‘Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him), describe them for us.’ He said, ‘All right. They will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language.’ I said, `Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him), what do you suggest if I happen to live in their time?’ He said, ‘You should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader’ I said, ‘If they have no (such thing as the) main body of the Muslims and have no leader?’ He said, ‘Separate yourself from all these factions, though you may have to eat the roots of trees until death comes to you and you are in this state.’”

(NB-It is not likely that there will be an absence of a Jama’ah, since I have already quoted the Prophet, peace be upon him, as saying: ‘A group of people from my Ummah will continue to fight in obedience to the command of Allah, remaining dominant over their enemies. Those who will oppose them shall not do them any harm. They will remain in this condition until the Hour overtakes them.‘)

(4) Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with him) reported the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) as saying:

“Who (ever) defected from the obedience (to the Amir) and separated from the main body of the Muslims – then he died in that state – would die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahiliyya (pre-Islamic ignorance). And he who is killed under the banner of a man who is blind (to the cause for which he is fighting), who gets flared up with family pride and fights for his tribe – is not from my Ummah, and whoso from my followers attacks my followers (indiscriminately) killing the righteous and the wicked of them, sparing not (even) those staunch in faith and fulfilling not his obligation towards them who have been given a pledge (of security), is not from me.” (Sahih Muslim, 3/4557 & 4555; English ed’n)

Imam al-Bayhaqi (d. 458/1066; Rahimahullah) stated in his: The Seventy-Seven Branches of Faith (pg. 42-3), under the fiftieth branch of faith (50 – Holding firmly to the position of the majority): “God Most High has said: Hold fast, all together, to the rope of God, and do not be disunited. [3:103]. Muslim (Rahimahullah) relates on the authority of Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, ‘Whoever is disobedient, and departs from the majority, and then dies, has died in a state of Jahiliyya.‘ He also relates the following Hadith on the authority of Ibn Shurayh (Allah be pleased with him): ‘After I am gone, there will come days of corruption and turmoil. When you see people damaging the unity of the Community of Muhammad (Peace be upon him), you must fight them, whoever they may happen to be.

Abdal Hakim Murad (the translator of the above book) said in the footnote to the fiftieth branch of faith: ‘Orthodoxy in Islam is defined as the doctrine of ahl al-sunna wa’l jama’a, the People of the Sunna and the Community. To know whether a doctrine or practise is orthodox or heretical, the Muslim is required to find out whether it is recognised by the majority of Muslim scholars (see later for Imam al-Munawi’s commentary). Thus even without looking into their theology, he will know that sects such as the Isma’ilis, the Khariji’s, the Wahhabi’s, the Twelver Shi’a and others (not to mention anti-Islamic groupings such as the Ahmadiya and the Bahais) are to be repudiated.’”

(5) Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) reported the Prophet (Peace be upon him) as saying:

“One who found in his Amir (the ruler of the true Islamic state; which is absent today) something which he disliked should hold his patience, for one who separated from the main body of the Muslims even to the extent of a handspan and then he died, would die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahiliyya.” (Sahih Muslim, 3/4559; English ed’n & Sahih al-Bukhari, 9/257; English ed’n)

(6) Imam’s Ahmad and Abu Dawood (Allah’s mercy be upon them) said that Abu Dharr (Allah be pleased with him) reported the Prophet (Peace be upon him) as saying:

“He who separates from the main body (of the Ummah) by even a hand’s breadth from the Community he throws off Islam from his neck.” (Mishkat-ul-Masabih, 1/185 & Sunan Abu Dawood, 3/4740)

NB-The following five Hadith have been mentioned by the great scholar of Hadith, Hafiz Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Jawzi (d. 597/1201; Rahimahullah) in hisTalbis Iblis (section entitled: Adherence to the Sunnah and Jama’ah). A section of the above work has been translated by Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips in to English, under the title: The Devil’s Deception of the Shee’ah (pp. 4-5). Bilal Philips has put footnotes to the five Hadith that I will be quoting below (to declare some of the Hadith to be Da’eef), but one thing that should be mentioned is that he has mainly relied upon al-Albani’s classification of the Hadiths in question; hence these ‘classifications’ of al-Albani need re-verifying! I say this because it is a well known fact that Hafiz Ibn al-Jawzi was noted for his exceptional stringency in accepting Hadith, and he has been known to have declared some of the Hadith in Bukhari/Muslim to be Da’eef, as well as declaring some sound Hadith to be fabricated! Nevertheless, I would like to make it clear to those readers who are unaware of the status of Bilal Philips, that he has heavily depended on the classifications of al-Albani in most of his books! If the esteemed reader is convinced that the errors of al-Albani are most apparent, then one should beware of the status of those Hadiths that have been used by Bilal Philips (on account of his accepting al-Albani’s classifications). Bilal Philips seems to be a leading critic of Taqleed who has been swept away by the tide of modern day “Salafiyyism”; and it seems that he has ‘blindly’ accepted the classifications of al-Albani without himself reverifying al-Albani’s classifications! I ask you, is this not a clear cut example of Taqleed? If it has been proven that al-Albani’s classifications are unreliable, would it not be just for Bilal Philips to re-verify all the Hadiths that have been authenticated by al-Albani and correct any misclassifications in his books? Allah know’s best.

(7) ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reported that on one occasion Allah’s Messenger (Peace and blessings be upon him) stood up among them and said, “Whoever among you desires the centre of paradise should keep close to the Jama’ah for the Devil closely accompanies the solitary individual and is more distant from two.” (Collected by Imam Tirmidhi)

(8) And ‘Arfajah (Allah be pleased with him) reported (Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him, as saying): “that Allah’s hand is over the Jama’ah and the Devil is with whoever deviates from the Jama’ah.” (Collected by Imam al-Tabarani)

(9) ‘Abdullah ibn Masood (Allah be pleased with him) reported that once Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) drew a line in the dust with his hand and said, “This is the straight path of Allah.” Then he drew a series of lines to the right of it and to the left and said, “Each of these paths has a devil at its head inviting people to it.” He then recited (Qur’an 6:153), “Verily this is my straight path so follow it and do not follow the (twisted) paths.” (Collected by Ahmad, Nisai and Darimi; see Mishkat ul-Masabih, 1/166)

(10) Mu’adh ibn Jabal (Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “The Devil is like a wolf among humans as a wolf is among sheep; it snatches the stray sheep. So beware of the paths which branch off and adhere to the Jama’ah, the masses and the masjid.” (Collected by Imam Ahmad; NB- The version given in Mishkat, 1/184, also on the authority of Imam Ahmad does not have the addition ‘the masses and the masjid.’)

(11) And Abu Dharr (Allah be pleased with him) reported from the Prophet (Peace be upon him) that, “Two are better than one, and three better than two; so stick to the Jama’ah for verily Allah, Most Great and Glorious, will only unite my nation on guidance.” (Collected by Ahmad)

(12) Al-Harith al-Ashari (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said:

“I bid you to do five things: to remain attached to the main body (Jama’ah of Muslims), listen to your ruler (the Khalif of the Islamic state) and obey him, and migrate, and fight in the way of Allah. And he who detaches himself from the main body of the Muslims (Jama’ah) to the extent of one span of hand, he in fact, throws off the yoke of Islam from his neck, and he who calls with the call of ignorance, he is one from the denizens of Hell beyond doubt, even if he observes fast and says prayers and considers himself as a Muslim.” (Musnad Ahmad, vide: Selection from Hadith, no. 288; by A.H. Siddique)

(13) Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying:

“Follow the great mass (as-Sawad al-Azam) for he who kept himself away from it, in fact would be thrown in Hell Fire.” (Ibn Majah; vide: Mishkat, 1/174, by A.H. Siddiqui).

The translator of Mishkat-ul-Masabih (A.H. Siddiqui, pg. 113) said in the footnote to the last Hadith:

“There is a good deal of difference of opinion as to what the term Sawad al-Azam implies. The overwhelming majority of the scholars are of the view that As-Sawad al-Azam means the largest group of the learned scholars and pious persons whose opinions are held in high esteem in Islam.”

(14) Imam al-Shafi’i (Rahimahullah) said in his Risala (pg. 252-3):

“Sufyan (ibn Uyayna) told us from Abd al-Malik ibn Umayr from Abd al-Rahman ibn Abd Allah ibn Masood from his father, that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, `God will grant prosperity to His servant who hears my words, remembers them, guards them, and hands them on. Many a transmitter of law is no lawyer (faqih) himself, and many may transmit law to others who are more versed in the law than they. The heart of a Muslim shall never harbour vindictive feelings against three: sincerity in working for God; faithfulness to Muslims; and conformity to the community of believers (Jama’ah) – their call shall protect (the believers) and guard them from (the Devil’s) delusion.‘” (vide: Sunan al-Darimi, vol. 1, pp. 74-6; Ibn Hanbal, vol. 6, pg. 96; Musnad al-Shafi’i, vol. 1, pg. 16; Mishkat-ul-Masabih, 1/228; and al-Bayhaqi in his al-Madkhal). Imam al-Shafi’i said (pg. 253): “The Apostle’s (Peace be upon him) order that men should follow the Muslim community is a proof that the ijma (consensus) of the Muslims is binding.”

(15) Imam al-Shafi’i (Rahimahullah) stated in al-Risala (pg. 286-7):

“And Sufyan (also) told us from `Abd Allah ibn Abi Labid from `Abd Allah ibn Sulayman ibn Yasar from his father, who said: `Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) made a speech at al-Jabiya in which he said: The Apostle of God (Peace be upon him) stood among us by an order from God, as I am now standing among you, and said: Believe my Companions, then those who succeed them (the Successors), and after that those who succeed the Successors; but after them untruthfulness will prevail when people will swear (in support of their saying) without having been asked to swear, and will testify without having been asked to testify. Only those who seek the pleasure of Paradise will follow the community, for the devil can pursue one person, but stands far away from two. Let no man be alone with a woman, for the devil will be third among them. He who is happy with his right (behaviour), or unhappy with his wrong behaviour, is a (true) believer.’” (see also Musnad al-Shafi’i, vol. 2, pg. 187; and Ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, pg. 112-13, 176-81).

Imam al-Shafi’i said in conclusion to this Hadith:

“He who holds what the Muslim community (Jama’ah) holds shall be regarded as following the community, and he who holds differently shall be regarded as opposing the community he was ordered to follow. So the error comes from separation; but in the community as a whole there is no error concerning the meaning of the Qur’an, the Sunnah, and analogy (qiyas).”

(16) Imam Hakim (1/116) has related a Sahih Hadith from the Prophet (Peace be upon him) in the following words: “My Ummah shall not agree upon error.

(17) Imam al-Tirmidhi (4/2167) reported on the authority of Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), who said: “Verily my Ummah would not agree (or he said the Ummah of Muhammad) would not agree upon error and Allah’s hand is over the group and whoever dissents from them departs to Hell.” (see also Mishkat, 1/173)

Imam al-Azizi (d. 1070/1660; Rahimahullah) quoted Imam al-Munawi’s (d. 1031/1622; Rahimahullah) commentary to the last Hadith in his al-Siraj al-munir sharh al-Jami al-saghir (3.449), as follows:- Allah’s hand is over the group

(al-Azizi): Munawi says, “Meaning his protection and preservation of them, signifying that the collectivity of the people of Islam are in Allah’s fold, so be also in Allah’s shelter, in the midst of them, and do not separate yourselves from them.” The rest of the Hadith, according to the one who first recorded it (Tirmidhi), is:-

and whoever descents from them departs to hell. 

Meaning that whoever diverges from the overwhelming majority concerning what is lawful or unlawful and on which the Community does not differ has slipped off the path of guidance and this will lead him to hell.”

Ash’aris Greatest Scholars from Maliki School

  • Ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani (d. 386 AH)
  • Al-Baqillani (d. 403 AH)
  • Abu Imran al-Fasi (d. 430 AH)
  • Ibn Sidah (d. 458 AH)
  • Abu al-Walid al-Baji (d. 474 AH)
  • Abu Bakr al-Turtushi (d. 520 AH)
  • Al-Maziri (d. 536 AH)
  • Ibn Barrajan (d. 536 AH)
  • Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi (d. 543 AH)
  • Al-Qadi ‘Ayyad (d. 544 AH)
  • Al-Suhayli (d. 581 AH)
  • Ibn al-Qattan (d. 628 AH)
  • Ibn Malik (d. 672 AH)
  • Shihab al-Din al-Qarafi (d. 684 AH)
  • Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id (d. 702 AH)
  • Ibn ‘Ata’ Allah al-Iskandari (d. 709 AH)
  • Ibn Adjurrum (d. 723 AH)
  • Ibn al-Hajj al-‘Abdari (d. 737 AH)
  • Ibn Juzayy (d. 741 AH)
  • Khalil ibn Ishaq al-Jundi (d. 776 AH)
  • Abu Ishaq al-Shatibi (d. 790 AH)
  • Ibn ‘Arafa (d. 803 AH)
  • Ibn Khaldun (d. 808 AH)
  • Abd al-Rahman al-Tha’alibi (d. 876 AH)
  • Ahmad Zarruq (d. 899 AH)
  • Ahmad al-Wansharisi (d. 914 AH)
  • Al-Akhdari (d. 953 AH)
  • Al-Hattab (d. 954 AH)
  • Ahmad Baba al-Timbukti (d. 1036 AH)
  • Al-Maqqari al-Tilimsani (d. 1041 AH)
  • Ibrahim al-Laqani (d. 1041 AH)
  • Muhammad Mayyara (d. 1072 AH)
  • Ibn ‘Ashir (d. 1090 AH)
  • Al-Hasan al-Yusi (d. 1102 AH)
  • Muhammad al-Zurqani (d. 1122 AH)
  • Ahmad al-Dardir (d. 1201 AH)
  • Ahmad ibn ‘Ajiba (d. 1224 AH)
  • Ahmad al-Tijani (d. 1230 AH)
  • Muhammad Arafa al-Desouki (d. 1230 AH)
  • Muhammad al-‘Arabi al-Darqawi (d. 1239 AH)
  • Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Sanusi (d. 1276 AH)
  • Muhammad ‘Ilish (d. 1299 AH)
  • Ahmad al-Ghumari (d. 1380 AH)
  • Muhammad al-Tahir ibn ‘Ashur (d. 1393 AH)
  • Abdel-Halim Mahmoud (d. 1397 AH)
  • ‘Abdullah al-Ghumari (d. 1413 AH)
  • Muhammad Metwalli al-Sha’rawi (d. 1419 AH)
  • Muhammad ‘Alawi al-Maliki (d. 1425 AH)

Ash’aris Greatest Scholars from Shafi School

  • Ibn Hibban (d. 354 AH)
  • Ibn Khafif (d. 371 AH)
  • Al-Hakim al-Nishapuri[5] (d. 405 AH)
  • Ibn Furak (d. 406 AH)
  • Abu Ishaq al-Isfarayini (d. 418 AH)
  • Al-Tha’labi (d. 427 AH)
  • Al-Bayhaqi (d. 458 AH)
  • Al-Qushayri (d. 465 AH)
  • Abd al-Qahir al-Jurjani (d. 471 AH)
  • Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi (d. 476 AH)
  • Al-Juwayni (d. 478 AH)
  • Al-Raghib al-Isfahani (d. 502 AH)
  • Al-Ghazali (d. 505 AH)
  • Al-Shahrastani (d. 548 AH)
  • Ibn ‘Asakir (d. 571 AH)
  • Ahmad al-Rifa’i (d. 578 AH)
  • Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (d. 606 AH)
  • Ibn al-Salah (d. 643 AH)
  • Izz al-Din ibn ‘Abd al-Salam (d. 660 AH)
  • Al-Nawawi (d. 676 AH)
  • Al-Baydawi (d. 685 AH)
  • Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id (d. 702 AH)
  • Safi al-Din al-Hindi (d. 715 AH)
  • Nizam al-Din al-Nisapuri (d. 728 AH)
  • Taqi al-Din al-Subki (d. 756 AH)
  • Al-Safadi (d. 764 AH)
  • Taj al-Din al-Subki (d. 771 AH)
  • Shams al-Din al-Kirmani (d. 786 AH)
  • Al-Zarkashi (d. 794 AH)
  • Zain al-Din al-‘Iraqi (d. 806 AH)
  • Nur al-Din al-Haythami (d. 807 AH)
  • Ibn al-Jazari (d. 833 AH)
  • Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani[6][7][8] (d. 852 AH)
  • Al-Sakhawi (d. 902 AH)
  • Al-Suyuti (d. 911 AH)
  • Nur al-Din al-Samhudi (d. 911 AH)
  • Jalal al-Din al-Dawani (d. 918 AH)
  • Al-Qastallani (d. 923 AH)
  • Zakariyya al-Ansari (d. 926 AH)
  • Al-Sha’rani (d. 973 AH)
  • Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 974 AH)
  • Al-Khatib al-Shirbini (d. 977 AH)
  • Al-Munawi (d. 1031 AH)
  • ‘Abdallah ibn ‘Alawi al-Haddad (d. 1132 AH)
  • Hasan al-Attar (d. 1230 AH)
  • Ahmad Zayni Dahlan (d. 1304 AH)
  • Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (d. 1379 AH)
  • Ahmad Kaftaru (d. 1425 AH)
  • Noah al-Qudah (d. 1432 AH)
  • ‘Abdallah al-Harari (d. 1432 AH)
  • Muhammad Said Ramadan al-Bouti (d. 1434 AH)

Ash’aris Greatest Scholars from Hanbli School

Ibn ‘Aqil[9] (d. 508 AH)

Ibn al-Jawzi[10] (d. 534 AH)

Ash’aris Greatest Scholars from Hanafi School

  • Al-Taftazani (d. 792 AH)
  • Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (d. 1176 AH)

Maturidi Greatest Scholars from Hanafi School

  • Al-Hakim al-Samarqandi (d. 342 AH)
  • Abu Bakr al-Kalabadhi (d. 379 AH)
  • Abu al-Layth al-Samarqandi (d. 375 AH)
  • Abu Zayd al-Dabusi (d. 429 AH)
  • Ali Hujwiri (d. 464 AH)
  • Yūsuf Balasaguni (d. 469 AH)
  • Abu al-Yusr al-Bazdawi (d. 493 AH)
  • Abu al-Mu’in al-Nasafi (d. 508 AH)
  • Abu Ishaq al-Saffar al-Bukhari (d. 534 AH)
  • Yusuf Hamadani (d. 535 AH)
  • Sheikh Ahmad-e Jami (d. 536 AH)
  • Najm al-Din ‘Umar al-Nasafi (d. 537 AH)
  • Ahmad Yasawi (d. 561 AH)
  • Siraj al-Din al-Ushi (d. 575 AH)
  • Nur al-Din al-Sabuni (d. 580 AH)
  • Fatima al-Samarqandi (d. 581 AH)
  • Al-Kasani (d. 587 AH)
  • Jamal al-Din al-Ghaznawi (d. 593 AH)
  • Abu al-Thana’ al-Lamishi (d. beginning of the sixth century AH)
  • Al-Mu’azzam ‘Isa (d. 624 AH)
  • Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki (d. 632 AH)
  • Mu’in al-Din Chishti (d. 633 AH)
  • Saif ed-Din al-Boharsi (d. 659 AH)
  • Fariduddin Ganjshakar (d. 664 AH)
  • Rumi (d. 671 AH)
  • Shams al-Din al-Samarqandi (d. after 690 AH)
  • Abu al-Barakat al-Nasafi (d. 710 AH)
  • Sultan Walad (d. 711 AH)
  • Nizamuddin Auliya (d. 725 AH)
  • Sadr al-Shari’a al-Asghar (d. 747 AH)
  • Akmal al-Din al-Babarti (d. 786 AH)
  • Baha’ al-Din Naqshband (d. 791 AH)
  • Kadi Burhan al-Din (d. 800 AH)
  • Al-Sharif al-Jurjani (d. 816 AH)
  • Bande Nawaz (d. 825 AH)
  • Shams al-Din al-Fanari (d. 834 AH)
  • ‘Ala’ al-Din al-Bukhari (d. 841 AH)
  • Yaqub al-Charkhi (d. 851 AH)
  • Ahmad ibn Arabshah (d. 861 AH)
  • Badr al-Din al-‘Ayni (d. 855 AH)
  • Al-Kamal ibn al-Humam (d. 861 AH)
  • Khidr Bey (d. 863 AH)
  • Ali al-Bistami (d. 874 AH)
  • ‘Ali al-Qushji (d. 879 AH)
  • Khwaja Ahrar (d. 895 AH)
  • Ali-Shir Nava’i (d. 906 AH)
  • Husayn Kashifi (d. 910 AH)
  • Ibn Kemal (d. 940 AH)
  • Abdul Quddus Gangohi (d. 943 AH)
  • Ibrahim al-Halabi (d. 955 AH)
  • Taşköprüzade (d. 968 AH)
  • Muhammad Birgivi (d. 980 AH)
  • Ebussuud Efendi (d. 982 AH)
  • Khwaja Baqi Billah (d. 1011 AH)
  • ‘Ali al-Qari (d. 1014 AH)
  • Hasan Kafi al-Aqhisari (d. 1025 AH)
  • Ahmad Sirhindi (d. 1034 AH)
  • Mahmud Hudayi (d. 1037 AH)
  • ‘Abd al-Haqq al-Dehlawi (d. 1052 AH)
  • Mulla Mahmud Jaunpuri (d. 1061 AH)
  • ‘Abd al-Hakim al-Siyalkoti (d. 1067 AH)
  • Wang Daiyu (d. around 1068 AH)
  • Kâtip Çelebi (d. 1068 AH)
  • Shihab al-Din al-Khafaji (d. 1069 AH)
  • Khayr al-Din al-Ramli (d. 1081 AH)
  • Ma Zhu (d. around 1123 AH)
  • Ismail Haqqi Bursevi (d. 1127 AH)
  • Shah Abdur Rahim (d. 1131 AH)
  • Liu Zhi of Nanjing (d. 1158 AH, or 1178 AH)
  • Nizamuddin Sihalivi (d. 1161 AH)
  • Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi (d. 1174 AH)
  • ‘Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi (d. 1176 AH)
  • İbrahim Hakkı Erzurumi (d. 1193 AH)
  • Mirza Mazhar Jan-e-Janaan (d. 1195 AH)
  • Gelenbevi Ismail Efendi (d. 1204 AH)
  • Murtada al-Zabidi (d. 1205 AH)
  • Qadi Thanaullah Panipati (d. 1225 AH)
  • Ghabdennasir Qursawi (d. 1226 AH)
  • Ghulam Ali Dehlavi (d. 1239 AH)
  • Shah Abdul Aziz (d. 1239 AH)
  • Syed Ahmad Barelvi (d. 1246 AH)
  • Ibn ‘Abidin (d. 1252 AH)
  • Muhammad ‘Abid al-Sindi (d. 1257 AH)
  • Mamluk Ali Nanautawi (d. 1267 AH)
  • Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi (d. 1278 AH)
  • Yusuf Ma Dexin (d. 1291 AH)
  • Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi (d. 1297 AH)
  • Naqi Ali Khan (d. 1297 AH)
  • ‘Abd al-Ghani al-Maydani (d. 1298 AH)
  • ‘Abd al-Hayy al-Lucknawi (d. 1304 AH)
  • Shihab al-Din al-Marjani (d. 1306 AH)
  • Rahmatullah al-Kairanawi (d. 1308 AH)
  • Giritli Sırrı Pasha (d. 1312 AH)
  • Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (d. 1312 AH)
  • Imdadullah Muhajir Makki (d. 1317 AH)
  • Abai Qunanbaiuly (d. 1321 AH)
  • Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi (d. 1340 AH)
  • Shakarim Qudayberdiuli (d. 1344 AH)
  • Muhammad Bakhit al-Muti’i (d. 1354 AH)
  • Meher Ali Shah (d. 1356 AH)
  • Muhammed Hamdi Yazır (d. 1361 AH)
  • Jamaat Ali Shah (d. 1951 CE)
  • Naeem-ud-Deen Muradabadi (d. 1367 AH)
  • Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari (d. 1371 AH)
  • Mustafa Sabri (d. 1373 AH)
  • Süleyman Hilmi Tunahan (d. 1378 AH)
  • Muhammad Abu Zahra (d. 1394 AH)
  • Abul Wafa Al Afghani (d. 1395 AH)
  • Muhammad Karam Shah al-Azhari (d. 1418 AH)
  • Ahmad Deedat (d. 1426 AH)
  • Wahbah al-Zuhayli (d. 1436 AH)